Anyone else used I used. Thanks for the S8 Accessories. The following are some benefits you get when you the remote user on lower portion.
This social trading feature is used by over , traders in countries and has two unique features. The first is Zulu Rank which ranks the individuals to consider copying. Factors considered when ranking range from performance, stability and exposure. The second is Zulu Guard, which provides account protection that can step in to protect your capital. IC Markets was found to be the lowest spread forex broker on the major currency pairs combined and also charges low commissions and funding fees.
The broker offers the CFD trading software with a ZuluTrade extension with a plethora of tradable instruments, including crypto and shares. Created by Spotware, cTrader is the third most popular forex software and is offered by a wide number of retail foreign exchange brokers. While no exact market share statistics have been published, below shows the popularity of the websites and app downloads of the three most popular platforms.
It highlights that many consider cTrader the top forex trading platform with superior analytical and graphic objects of 65 and level II pricing. For automated trading , cTrader offers cAlgo which has a. The smaller market share of cTrader vs MetaTrader means that the online community is more niche, limiting the sharing of bots and the copy trading environment. The server for Spotware is located in the UK, compared to MetaTrader, which is based in the USA and can be an issue for accessing liquidity and trade execution speeds.
The main benefit of NDD interference is fast trade execution speeds with the majority of orders executed in The result is that the quotes shown by FxPro in almost all cases are the price the order is filled with a low percentage of slippage having almost an equal positive and negative impact. The resulting spreads for FxPro are not competitive for MT4 1. This makes them offer the best trading costs for cTrader only. With 7, orders executed per second and co-location servers, traders benefit from the FxPro infrastructure.
With so many regulated bodies, traders can choose the entity that matches where they are located or what conditions they wish to start trading under eg balance protection, leverage. FxPro offers instruments to be traded through the cTrader platform this includes over 70 forex pairs, the futures market, spot indices across the world, over stocks and global shares, spot metals and energies such from oil to gas.
FxPro has the best infrastructure with co-location servers for cTrader. The results are fast execution speeds on average Developed by Markets. The main advantage of Marketsx is the wide variety of smart trading tools including technical, fundamental and sentiment analysis tools. Our top picks for the most useful trading tools include the advance charting package, the Hedge Funds investment confidence, Insider trades which shows the smart money buying and selling activity and a stock report powered by Thomson Reuters.
The platform is equipped with 88 technical indicators and 9 different chart types, drawing tools and a customisable interface. There are favourable trading conditions, with spreads starting from 0. In , Marketsx is an award-winning trading platform equipped with all the tools needed to trade the market effectively.
From technical analysis, fundamental and risk management tools to sentiment tools can be used to assess the current market trends across a range of financial instruments. View Markets. Hundreds of trading indicators are pre-configured with drawing tools available.
Alerts can be configured for currency market movements and automated strategy programs are pre-configured. NinjaTrader is only offered by six foreign exchange brokers. The community using the software is small with only 60, traders last year. NinjaTrader has no mobile app with only a Windows desktop version available. For both types of trading, the broker offers a risk-free demo account that includes full historical market data, access to third-party apps and indicators, and the ability to develop and test automated trading strategies.
Unlike most other forex trading software, the is web-based with no downloads required. There are customisable currency market scanners and advanced charting facilities. For automated trading, the platform uses ProRealCode coding language. As outlined above, the technical analysis functionality of ProRealTime is the key strength of the trading software. The interface has a wide variety of charts and unlimited timeframes, with the ability to place trades based on trend lines across asset classes.
The platform was not designed for mobile trading with no trading apps available. Australian traders can only use the software in demo mode. The other issue is the fees some brokers charge from an interactive fee to real-time data access fees. There are two types of trading accounts. Our analysis found that IC Markets has the lowest spreads in this category. The second category is called a standard account and has no commissions. Our analysis shown below compares the average spreads of standard accounts and determined IG offered the lowest spreads overall.
Please note that other fees apply when trading, including financing fees for overnight positions. These financing fees will depend on the software platform chosen with IG. The online broker was recommended for social traders based on the platform functionality, number of copy traders online, and depth of CFD trading options. The most obvious advantage of the eToro trading platform is that the platform is specifically designed for social trading.
Unlike other platforms which require you to integrate third-party software or an add-on extension, eToro provides all the social tools you need for social trading. In this sense, eToro could be described as the Facebook of social trading , where traders can discuss all things trading with each other and get valuable feedback.
The other notable advantage of the platform is the copy trading feature. This comes in two flavours, CopyTrader and CopyPortfolio. This is exceptionally useful for beginner traders or traders with little free time, as they can profit off the trades of other traders. Traders should understand how it works as it can help you make better copy and trading decisions however it is complex to understand.
The other disadvantage is eToro is a specialist social trader platform that does not have as many technical indicators and graphical tools compared to specialist CFD platforms such as Next Generation by CMC Markets. When opening an eToro trading account, a demo account is automatically created.
The demo account includes the research feature from eToro investors and industry experts sourced from financial institutions. There are a variety of trading platform options from the web platform to mobile iOS app for iPad and iPhone devices. There is also an app for Android devices. Below shows how this works with traders rewarded based on the size and the number of other traders copying their positions.
Other key social trading features include live newsfeeds, allowing traders to discuss strategies and share strategies. In , 47 currency pairs can be traded with eToro. Other key financial markets include 17 cryptocurrencies including bitcoin , EFTs, 13 commodities and 13 indices. The biggest financial market unique to eToro is their share trading ability to trade more stocks in most global markets as a contract for difference.
The specialist social trading platform offers most financial markets, including cryptocurrencies. Plus is a CFD provider that offers a large range of financial instruments for trading. The company offers its proprietary trading platform, designed specifically to make monitoring and trading multiple instruments at one time as easy as possible.
Plus trading platform is well known for its ease of use when trading its large range of financial products. The main screen is designed to display multiple CFDs with real-time quotes and only the most necessary information through an exceptionally easy to view and organised layout.
This helps users as it keeps things simple when trading, there is no need to switch screens to implement strategies or perform orders. Our top picks for novice traders include several other brokers, but Plus has the best risk management tools available through the platform. This includes guaranteed stops, which are not available with most brokers.
The Plus trading platform has several limitations. The software does not offer algorithmic trading, meaning traders looking for trading automation may find the platform does not suit their needs. Traders looking for advanced analysis tools may also feel restricted as the Plus trading platform offers just 15 indicators and 10 timeframes and the level of platform customisation is limited.
The other main issue with the Plus trading platform is that it is proprietary with a closed ecosystem. This limits the level of customisation one can do either through creating their custom signals with their code, adding extensions or plug-in from 3rd part providers to increase the number of technical indicators or graphical tools available and switching platforms should you wish to change brokers in the future.
Plus offers the following features for novice traders:. One of the key features of the Plus trading platform is the risk management tools that are not often offered by other brokers. Guaranteed stop-loss orders are also available, allowing you to set a maximum potential loss for trades.
While Plus is a good platform if you are new to trading, but we do not recommend the platform if you intend to use it to learn to trade. For this, we recommend their demo account as you can practice with virtual cash before using your own money to invest. Leverage instruments involve a high level of risk, so we recommend exercising caution before you trade. Beginner forex traders should check the product disclosure statement PDS of the subsidiary first before trading with Plus With such data reliability, eSignal can distinguish itself from other platforms for its charting tools.
Furthermore, each add-on incurs an additional cost. Such costs make it unsuitable for beginner traders. To save on costs, a broker that offers eSignal as part of their package may be worth considering. If you subscribe with the Classic plan, subscribers will only get intraday data delayed 15 minutes and no backtesting, no mobile access and no depth of market, for these features, traders will need Signature or Elite plans.
City Index engineered its Web Trader platform to run with protective risk management features that come in the form of:. Negative balance protection is an automatic stop-loss feature that ensures clients do not lose more than the account balance and indebted to their broker. When a debit account balance occurs because of unforeseeable market events, the negative balance protection policy will restore your trading account balance to zero.
Additionally, the City Index TradingView platform is equipped with a guaranteed stop-loss order, which for an extra fee that is built into the spread warrants that your SL will be triggered at the specified price. Please note, CFDs remain complex instruments and traders show learn about the risks even with these features. Our team of experts also weighed into our proprietary scoring system the wide range of order types offered by City Index, which includes:.
City Index clients can access a plethora of smart trading tools that can help them find new trading opportunities. City Index web-based charts are powered by TradingView but are enhanced by the in-house technology built by the team of experts at this brokerage trading firm. Overall, the City Index TradingView platform has professional capabilities and trading tools that can satisfy the needs of the most sophisticated traders.
You can trade on any device and operating system anywhere directly from your browser without the need to install it on your PC. It is one of the few platforms available on Mac. The platform stands out in a crowded field of competitors because of its advanced charting features, a wealth of research tools and screening tools which are highly customisable. The ThinkOrSwim trading platform offers the following notable features:.
ThinkOrSwim also includes extensive research capabilities from TD-Ameritrade, this gives users education and news to help with trading. ThinkOrSwim is only available in the US. The platform also has a large learning curve due to the wealth of tools available. If you are a beginner trader, you may not need charting tools like ThinkOrSwim offers.
TD-Ameritrade offers 70 currency pairs to trade, all with no commission fees. Trading with spread only products keeps thing simple and straightforward as traders know in advance via the spread exactly what they are paying for.
The broker also has no commissions when trading the following online stocks, ETFs, options and selected bonds. Similar to a demo order, this is a tool to help you practice trading with the most realistic scenarios possible.
With this tool, you test new strategies, test order types without risking your own capital. This broker is regulated with the following authorities:. Requirements of this regulation include:. With an extensive collection of educational features including immersive courses, online articles and web videos, webcasts, web seminars. TD Ameritrade has a commitment to giving their clients every opportunity to develop their skills when CFD trading.
The reason the broker is recommended includes the ThinkorSwim Forex platform, a wide range of currency pairs, customer support and low spreads. TradeStation is an online charting system and social network for traders to chat with each other, share ideas and trade scripts. TradeView offers superior charting for a large range of CFDs. Traders can choose from 10 HTML5 chart types with up to 8 charts per layout and over 50 drawing tools to help analyse trends and identify opportunities.
TradeStation also has a stock screener based on different metrics from over search fields. A similar feature is offered by xStation offered by XTB. TradeStation is not a true trading platform. You cannot buy and sell through it, to do this you will need a broker that integrates TradeStation into its platform. It also does not offer Level 2 data regardless if traders subscribe to a Premium subscription. While the software offers a free subscription to get so features, a paid subscription will be needed to get the best features such as a screen with multiple charts and customer services.
Oanda offers its clients access to Autochartist, a powerful third-party tool that uses automatic chart pattern recognition software. All Oanda Trade clients can gain free of charge access to the Autochartist software. Some Autochartist features and advantages are listed below:. Make better trading decisions with indicators, overlays and tools, including AutoChartist. Additionally, Oanda clients can have access to an economic calendar integrated directly with the TradeStation platform.
If your trading relies on news activity, you can get real-time breaking news along with market commentaries from industry-leading FX experts. At Oanda, forex traders can deposit and withdraw money through 4 supported payment methods including:. In total, Oanda customers can use 9 different account base currencies along with their favourite banking method.
Oanda was found to be the best forex broker for US traders, offering the TradeStation platform powered by its advanced price technology. For a limited period 30 days traders can use the TradeStation demo account to test the financial services offered by Oanda. While the above platform made our list of best forex trading platforms, there are other very good trading platforms you could consider.
The main idea is that you can carry out activities legally. Here, where an offshore company with a forex broker license will help you. We can help you to get your license. Moreover, we recommend that you work legally and responsibly. Carry out thorough consultations with lawyers about the activities you are planning. Times are changing.
Many jurisdictions have stopped issuing licenses for forex activities. Most recently, the Internet was crowded with companies that sold artificial forex licenses. Even now, some suppliers are trying to sell so-called licenses in jurisdictions such as St. Vincent and Dominica, although these activities are not regulated there at all.
By protecting your FX trade license through offshore companies, you can be sure that you have the appropriate company and the documentation is genuine and that everything is legal and correct. Due to the fact that we have our employees in offshore jurisdictions, we can help to issue your license with the least fund and costs, and also with the least difficulties. With the presence of a license, you can absolutely legally offer services to forex traders.
Thanks to the forex license you can conduct business all over the world via the Internet. Also, you can open representative offices around the world. Having opened the second company serving a forex broker, you can supplement your list of services offered, open accounts in respectable European banks, open merchant accounts at acceptable rates, minimize expenses and taxation.
Also, we can offer virtual office services for an offshore company in European jurisdiction, which will allow you to stand out before other offshore brokers. Obtaining a forex license usually takes about weeks, depending on the processing time of state documents submitted documents, the speed of the provision of all notarized documents, as well as due diligence procedure. Further you can get to know the researches on the given subjects which will give you the information on the further choice of the suitable license.
What is the best jurisdiction for obtaining a forex license? Where to register it? We will provide you with a list of five categories of forex licenses in jurisdictions, from the most expensive and respectable, to the most affordable and fastest to receive. The criteria for the cost of a license, the complexity of obtaining a license and jurisdiction are determined. Also, consideration was given to the need for presence, availability of staff, reporting requirements, and the reputation of the jurisdiction.
Before making a choice, you need to put questions that a wise forex broker should ask before establishing a company. Most clients work with online brokers. The implementation of activities without a license in some countries can lead to fines, and even to the closure of business.
Having answered the answers to the questions posed above, we will be able to help you to make choice of the jurisdiction. Many countries have enacted regulations, governmental and private organizations, in order to help protect the public from fraud in the Forex industry. These jurisdictions we call the jurisdictions of the first level of forex brokers. The United States and Japan fell into this category. Very stringent reporting requirements are present, as well as the large impact of customer complaints to regulators, which can lead to a strong reaction from regulators.
Jurisdictions have less stringent reporting requirements and lower requirements for running the enterprise. A physical presence is required. These countries have regulators that offer a good level of protection to Forex broker clients. A local office is required. Low level of reporting and taxes. The cost and time for obtaining a license is about the same as in the second-level jurisdictions. When registering in these countries and working with clients from the EU, opening a bank account with European banks is much easier than in some of the jurisdictions below.
These countries have such licensing requirements for obtaining a license to show potential customers a sufficient level of comfort and reliability of the companies.
You can read our ECN forex broker comparison here. Most forex brokers have no dealing desk. NDD brokerage is safe to use and there is also no conflict of interest. You will have no requotes with a no dealing desk broker like with an ECN broker. Dealing desk brokers can manually influence the spreads and execution of traders. You can read our NDD broker comparison here.
STP means you have no dealing desk and all orders are executed directly on the market or by liquidity providers. You can read our STP broker comparison here. Not all forex brokers are offering high leverage for currency trading. The regulators in Europe and Australia limit the leverage for retail clients to For getting higher leverage you have to be a professional trader. Most retail traders can not achieve this status because there are hard requirements for it.
The solution to switch to a forex broker with another regulation authority that has no restrictions to high leverage trading. You can read our comparison of forex brokers with high leverage here. The standard forex trading order size is determined in lots. There are 1. There are opportunities to trade with a smaller order size like 0,01 lot. It is called cent accounts. With a cent account, it means only units. Cent accounts are suitable for traders who want to start with very small amounts of money.
You can read our comparison of cent account here. That means you will get raw spreads from the markets. Depending on the broker it can be really 0. This type of trading accounts is suitable for scalp traders and traders who are using a high order volume.
Read our comparison of zero spread accounts here. Security has the highest priority in online trading. When it comes to trading leveraged financial products, you have to be able to trust the forex broker. It is not uncommon for large sums of money to be used to generate a large profit.
For example, brokers in Europe must have regulations or licenses if they want to offer their services. The regulation can be in any European country. The same or almost the same requirements apply to brokers everywhere. In order to avoid fraud, it is important to look for such a license. Licenses are only issued under certain conditions and criteria. If a broker violates these conditions, the license may be withdrawn immediately.
All tested companies of mine are always concerned to keep the highest criteria and guarantee a safe trade. Many brokers, for example, are regulated in Cyprus. This has tax advantages. Nevertheless, there are also forex brokers with more than one regulation. The various regulatory authorities can be seen in the table above.
Another important point for serious trading is the security of customer funds. Payouts of winnings or the deposited amount should work smoothly. It was not uncommon for some brokers to speculate on customer funds themselves. In the end, withdrawals were refused or delays occurred. Forex trading is managed by leveraged financial products. That means you are able to trade a bigger contract size than the amount of money in your account. Some brokers offer leverage up to Many traders are afraid of the obligation to make margin calls and this is not without reason as the past has shown.
Account balances could slip into the negative balance. This is possible due to extreme market situations and too large a position size in relation to the account balance. With the providers in the upper table, you are therefore protected against such a scenario. In our experience, this can only happen if the account is too heavily leveraged.
You should always beware of sensible risk management. A demo account is essential for successful trading. The trading column form and conditions can be tested extensively with this account. It is a virtual credit account that simulates real money trading.
It can be traded without risk. This means that new strategies can be developed or new markets tested. The demo accounts of the compared providers are completely free and unlimited. This account is best suited for entry into forex trading. For most traders, the first deposit into their account is very exciting. It should work smoothly and be highly secure.
Forex Brokers offer well-known and proven payment methods. Capitalize the trading account with electronic methods credit card, e-wallet, PayPal, crypto or with the classic way of bank transfer. Electronic methods work in real-time and the money is credited directly to the trading account. Trading can be started immediately. The minimum deposit at the compared brokers is very low.
If this is worth it, you have to decide for yourself. There are no fees for deposits. The payout is also very uncomplicated. With a few clicks, you can request a withdrawal on the menu. This is then released in working days. However, most brokers payout customer money in less than 24 hours. All presented brokers passed this test. The fees can be high for small payouts. Not every country is available for Forex Brokers and trading. This is because there are some restrictions and special regulations.
For example, in some countries, an international broker needs a special license for that specific country. So it is too much to afford for some companies to get the license and they stop taking clients from these countries. You can clearly see on the homepage which clients they accept. Not many brokers accept clients of the United States of Amerika. From my experience, the fastest-growing countries are in Africa and Asia.
Because of the development of the mobile internet, more people get connected to the forex market. India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Malaysia, and China are at the moment the fastest-growing countries. Forex trading is fully legal if there is not any ban from the government. Forex trading is just changing money into another currency. This is not an illegal practice.
The brokers on my review got official regulations so they act fully legal. On this page, we have presented you with our current list of the top 20 Forex Brokers in comparison. Now you have a selection of good and reputable companies in front of you. It was particularly important to us that we only present providers here, which we have tested by ourselves with real money.
This is not the case with most comparisons. Profit now from the most favorable fees and the best conditions by my experience of many years. We hope you could learn something in this comparison and act now with better providers through my recommendations. Successful forex trading requires a good and reliable broker. In this review, we showed you the top 20 secure forex brokers. Now you can choose your professional trading partner. Last Updated on May 6, by Andre Witzel.
Risk Warning: Your capital can be endangered. Trading Forex, CFD, Binary Options, and other financial instruments carries a high risk of loss and is not suitable for all investors. Otherwise, the payment process largely hinges on the accepted money transfer methods. It would make sense for forex brokers to adopt as many such methods as possible, yet some still fall well short of the mark. This can act as an entry barrier to less experienced clients with less capital to invest.
The majority of forex platforms tend to accept Skrill and Neteller too. Forex brokers with PayPal are much rarer. The same goes for forex brokers accepting bitcoin. First of all: disgruntled traders are always more motivated to post feedback. They are not likely to be unbiased.
Secondly: not all of this feedback is factually correct. Even sites like TrustPilot are blighted with fake posts or scam messages. There is no quality control or verification of posts. That said, it is still relevant. To the trained eye, genuine trader reviews are relatively easy to spot.
The utter lack of community feedback is red flag as well. People always have something to say about forex brokers. Therefore, something is definitely amiss if there is no information available in this regard. Regulation should be an important consideration. Across the world, there are different regulatory bodies that govern the rules a forex broker must adhere to. This includes the following regulators:.
If a forex platform is regulated by one of the above, they are permitted to provide financial services throughout Europe. In Europe, forex leverage is capped at or x Outside of Europe, leverage can reach x Traders in Europe can apply for professional status with their forex broker. This removes their regulatory protection and allowing them to trade with higher leverage.
These are the most stringent global regulators. Forex brokers offering services in their jurisdictions must register with them to provide financial services legally. In other nations, the regulators are more laisse faire and regulation is not mandatory.
Sadly, this is not a sign that should instil confidence in the forex broker. Beyond a nominally available dispute-resolution system, such regulatory coverage offers you no protection. Leverage can be a factor to consider when selecting forex platforms. However, regulation often takes the choice out of this.
Leverage is capped at by the majority of forex brokers regulated in Europe. Assets such as gold, oil or stocks are capped separately. Most forex brokers will follow regulations and segregate client and company funds into separate bank accounts. This protects traders in the case of broker liquidation. Data protection is usually legislated at a government level. This restricts what forex brokers can do with your personal data, offering that added level of protection.
Account security also differs among forex brokers. Some platforms may offer the additional layer of protection of 2FA two-factor authentication which will protect against hacker intrusion. Many forex brokers will allow you to open a simulation account.
This trading training software uses imaginary money to see how you would have performed had you made the decisions that you did on the real forex market. This can be good for new traders looking to test the waters and ease their nerves, and it can also be useful for more experienced traders looking to trial new strategies and ideas in a risk-free environment.
See our list of the best forex demo accounts. A proper regulatory agency will not think twice about handing out cease and desist orders to dishonest brokers. It will also likely blacklist them. You actually have to scour the archives of regulators to happen upon such relevant bits of information.
From cashback, to a no deposit bonus, free trades or deposit matches, forex brokers used to offer loads of promotions. Regulatory pressure has changed all that. Forex platforms offering bonuses are now few and far between. Our forex bonus page will list them where offered, but they should rarely be a deciding factor in your choice.
Always check the terms and conditions and make sure they will not cause you to over-trade. Many forex brokers with welcome, low or no deposit bonuses have time limits or turnover requirements. This is particularly crucial when assessing a forex broker offering a no deposit bonus. Often, bonuses that are given without the need to deposit are non-withdrawable.
Forex brokers use a number of different methods to execute your trades. Exactly which method it uses for a particular trade will be reflected in the price you pay for it. Some forex platforms only support certain order execution methods. For instance, your broker may act as a market maker and not use an ECN for trade execution. ECNs are great for limit orders, as they match buy and sell orders automatically within the network.
Order execution is extremely important when it comes to choosing forex brokers. It also goes hand-in-hand with regulatory requirements. Regulators aim to make sure that traders get the best possible execution. Online forex brokers are required to submit data concerning their execution methods as well as execution prices on a trade-by-trade basis. In this reporting, the prices paid by forex platforms are compared to those quoted to the public.
If the broker executes trades at better prices than the public quotes, it has some additional explaining to do. The differences can be access to 0 pip spreads, Level II data, settlement or different leverage and commission.
Retail and professional accounts will be treated very differently by both brokers and regulators for example. An ECN account will give you direct access to the forex contracts markets. So research what you need, and compare it to what you are getting at your current forex platforms.
Sadly, there are some forex brokers that are just scams. Avoid getting caught out with these checks:. Read who won the DayTrading. Forex brokers are intermediaries. Their primary and often only goal is to bring together buyers and sellers by matching orders automatically, without human intervention STP. For this service, it collects its due fees. Market maker forex brokers, on the other hand, actively create liquidity in the market by acting as a counterparty to traders. This does lead to a conflict of interest.
Market makers will be profiting from your losses. Picking the right platforms for you from the extensive list of forex brokers is no easy task. But it is imperative that you get it right. While we can point you in the correct general direction, only you know your personal needs. Take them into account, together with our recommendations. There is no single top forex broker as every client has different needs, strategies and geographical locations.
For example, of the top 8 brokers in South Africa, only 5 may make the list in Dubai or India, and even then they may be topped by other firms built around the local markets. So, whether you are in New Zealand, Japan, Lebanon, China, Mexico or beyond, finding the right broker will be a completely different experience. Follow our guide above for how best to compare local brokers, or see our ranked list of brokers that accept clients in your area.
Forex broker regulation is split among the various financial and geopolitical jurisdictions in the world. While most brokers will conform to rules imposed by regulatory agencies, there are some that do not.
For example, some companies intentionally set themselves up in regions not affected by the ESMA but still advertise to European customers. These are generally either scams or specialist firms that provide anonymous brokering to best protect their client information through means like not requiring KYC data on account setup. Forex brokers around the world accept various payment methods for funding and emptying accounts. There are many brokers that accept wire transfer and payment debit or credit cards, with a growing number using and accepting PayPal, Bitcoin , Venmo and other e-wallets and payment systems.
Much like brokers, finding the best forex trading platform is a personal and subjective task. With so many commercial and private platform providers, brokers offering their own trading software and clients with unique strategies out there, there are no clear best forex trading platforms.