olszynski grochowskiej real investing
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The following decisions were made:. Based on the in-depth research conducted, the Discourse has found that individual spot forex electronic transactions contain elements of usury riba in the imposition of rollover interest, resemble a sale contract with credit term by way of leverage, is ambiguous forex online analytics terms of the transfer of the possession of items exchanged between the parties, include the sale of currency that is not in possession as well as speculation that involves gambling. Furthermore, it is also illegal under the laws of Malaysia. In relation to the above, the Discourse has agreed to decide that the hukum islam main forex individual spot forex electronic transactions are prohibited as they are contrary to the precepts of the Shariah and are illegal under Malaysian law. Therefore, the Muslim community is prohibited from engaging in forex transactions such as these. The Discourse also stressed that the decision made is not applicable to foreign currency exchange operations carried out at licensed money changer counters and those handled by financial institutions that are licensed to do so under Malaysian law. Click here to view.

Olszynski grochowskiej real investing forex analysis forecasts

Olszynski grochowskiej real investing

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Activities may involve abseiling, kayaking, tramping, outdoor cooking, studying the historical aspects of the area and exploring the area on horseback, mountain bikes and trucks or exploring opportunities within a city environment. Has there been any recalls or anything about bad I quote bad axles on front or back. Your CWID is the first part of your hospital email address. The process occurs in varying extent from different surfaces and only a few specialist stations with lysimeters are able to measure that water output.

It caused that many researchers have tried to find a physically based mathematical equation or simpler empirical equations built in co-investigation with lysimeter measurements to calculate evapotranspiration reliably. Among them, FAO Penman-Monteith equation has become the most versatile, commonly used, well applicable in different climate zones method. It indicates that a large area in Poland is afflicted with the deficit of precipitation water.

However, the CWB was generally leveled in the Polish lowlands in the years Cormorants affect the distribution of nutrients in the aquatic environment and the adjacent land, which is a consequence of the location of their colonies near bodies of water. During the breeding season, cormorant colonies actively forage in the surrounding aquatic ecosystems, moving large amounts of nutrients from the water to the land area of the colony.

Such an allochthonous supply of material to the land is rich in elements nitrogen and phosphorus. These elements are the primary factors limiting production in terrestrial ecosystems. In the past few years a significant increase in cormorant number has been observed throughout Poland. This phenomenon may be a factor in accelerating eutrophication of lakes.

My presentation is a summary of the results of research on the effects of cormorant eutrophication of water bodies. The study was conducted during fishing trips in Poland and Hawaii. Taking into account the mass of the produced manure, often arises a problem of its rational management.

Most often this fertilizer is stored under anaerobic conditions, being used in a further step to fertilize the plants and improve the soil properties. In case of improper manure storage, without special plates or without proper base protection, its substrate materials along with the effluents and gases, penetrate into the lower soil levels, creating the danger of territorial groundwater pollution.

Therefore, it is so important to identify the potential sources of nutrient runoff and other manure pollutants into the environment. Assisting in achieving this purpose can be the bioreactors, which are used among others for modeling and testing of aerobic and anaerobic processes running in wastes from agri-food sector.

Their construction allows controlling the air flow to the pile, to stop the flow and collect the gravity effluents and gases drains from the stored wastes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and usage possibilities of the bioreactors in order to determine the quantitative and qualitative migration of pollution and biogenic components from the stored manure to environment.

The sample under study includes 31 specimens which were collected in the Pomeranian Bay in November with a bottom-trawl. Fish were examined with regards to the biometric characters, the occurrence of endoparasites and diet. Seventeen metric characters were studied. The results were presented as relative values in relation to the total length, standard length or head length.

Additionally, the correlation among the metric characters and the total and standard length and head characters with the head length were established. The following meristic characters were counted: number of hard and soft rays in two dorsal fins D1 and D2 , pectoral P , ventral V and anal A fins. The sample under study was divided into three length classes.

The most numerous was the middle length class The smallest individual of Round goby under study was The most often recorded food components were Mollusca: Mytilus sp. In three of the stomachs the Harris mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii was found. Two species of parasites of Acanthocephala - Echinorhynchus gadi and Pomphorhynchus laevis were found.

The intensity of infection was low. Its natural water conditions were changed as a consequence of drainage and peat digging. The primary endorheic basin was crossed by many drainage ditches. Since significant part of Bielawskie Blota approx. Active protection plan on Bielawa started in Hydrological monitoring started three years later only — since the last quarter of hydrological year Hydrological observation is performed by a network of piezometers and gauges, also using field work as measurements and mapping.

Most of all, the results of active protection on water conditions in Bielawa, can be studied locally - because of short time range and particularly some research network arrangement imperfections. First of all there is a noticeable impact of Bielawa channel in the groundwater table shape.

It is evident in the large part of the bog. Bielawa channel drains the western part of the reserve, in spite of numerous reduce outflow treatments. The observed effect from the Czarna Wda River is more limited — was even found a significant increase of water level close to partially backfilled Stara Ameryka channel.

In the second part wet season of hydrological year was observed significant water level decrease in all measurement points. Most of all, it was an effect of weather conditions. Wet season took a much smaller share in total annual precipitation in than in two previous years. Generally, protective treatment continuation is considered favorable. There is essential to continue and improve hydrological monitoring for tracking weather conditions and it's relation to treatments.

In the past few years the reservoir received a large amount of nutrients from industrial and domestic sewage. To improve the water quality four tributaries has been directly inserted to the hypolimnion. The streams were characterized by a high nitrate concentration to increase the redox potential in the sediments of the studied lake. The aim of the study was to analyze quantitative and qualitative structure of the phytoplankton community during the studied period. The phytoplankton samples were collected without concentration once a month from the point located in the middle of the lake, from the surface and the depth of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6m.

All taxonomical groups were counted in Sedgwick—Rafter chamber its volume was 0. A total of phytoplankton taxa were identified during the studied period. The most numerous were chlorophytes 47 taxa , diatoms 21 , cyanobacteria 13 and chrysophytes Other groups were represented by lower number of taxa. In the analyzed period the most abundant groups were cyanobacteria max. The most abundant species were Planktothrix agardhii, Limnothrix redeckei, Pseudanabaena limnetica. Species from other taxonomic groups were less frequent, unimportant in the quantitative composition of phytoplankton.

Key words: reference evapotranspiration, atmospheric circulation, Wielkopolska The study was supported partly by the Polish Ministry of Education Science grant No NN In particular, their taxonomy causes many problems since the diagnostic features are often not obvious and distinguishing species is complicated. One of the examples that confirms the above statement may be observed in the genus Thermocyclops with two representatives of Polish freshwater fauna T.

Morphological differences between these two species are body shape parameters such as length and width of particular elements of carapax and the main feature is the length and shape of the inner apical spine in 4 th pair of natatory legs. These features are not so explicit, therefore distinguishing between these two species is often difficult. This is why it is worth investigating the differences between these species. Genetic differences in correlation with morphological variations and habitat preferences will be presented.

It is also the largest natural fresh water lake, with a capacity of about 23 thousand km3. This basin is characterized by an abundance of freshwater organisms. In vertebrates, the most famous are Baikal seal Phoca sibirica , golomyanka Comephorus baicalensis and Baikal omul Coregonus migratorius.

To the cleaners of Baikal mentioned in the title, including sponges, e. Swartschewskia papyracea, Lubomirskia baicalensis, scuds e. Abyssogammarus sarmatus, and numerous species of copepods e. Epischura baikalensis. All these tiny organisms remove most of the organic residue of the Baikal Lake waters.

It deserves our special attention and protection. I would like to introduce you briefly in the species richness of this unique ecosystem and the rules how it works. In the case of on-site wastewater treatment, a key role in assessing plays; the effectiveness of wastewater treatment, operating costs, failure of the system and, intuitive operation.

On the market are generally available SBRs systems Sequencing Batch Reactors , which are characterized by high-efficiency wastewater treatment, but the cost of their operation and the inability to easy repair when failure causing that users do not want them. In accordance with the requirements of wastewater treatment in areas where unfavorable is to build sewerage systems, people most commonly choose drainfield with a replacement area, and the soil.

This system, despite being a simple and cost-effectiveness is often not an efficient method of wastewater treatment and in areas with a high groundwater level, it cannot be used. Application of non-woven filter in on-site sewage systems is an interesting alternative. Ready to install domestic technology of non-woven fabric are much cheaper than the SBR and comparatively economical as drainfield systems.

The wastewater treatment efficiency is relatively high, compared to SBR slightly worse, but better than the drainfield. Easy to use and clean of equipment makes it more affordable for users. The use of these technologies brings beneficial environmental effect and reduces the adverse impact of wastewater on ground or surface water.

The effectiveness of domestic wastewater treatment by non-woven filters has been examined during research, by various ways water retention through the filters. In the first scenario the filters were permanently submerged from one side, and a second with periodic uncovered filters. The results indicate, that the effectiveness of treatment varies depending on the approved procedure.

However, in all cases, the visible effect is demonstrated non-woven filters are suitable material to use in on-site wastewater treatment. The underwater noise was added to the list of pollutants. The noise is causing or may causing negative effects for example in natural resources or marine ecosystems. A threat from the underwater noise increase, because with every decade grow a human activity in marine environment, which generate such pollution.

One of the activity is marine transport — the biggest creator of underwater noise, second is exploration and exploitation of new mineral deposits in a bottom of the seas. Recently an intensive development of wind farms in inshore area was observed. Their building causes a considerable increase of underwater noise. Underwater noise constitute a threat for marine mammals first of all for whales. Their basic sense of direction in marine environment is echolocation.

For that reason there is a need to draw up a standards of permissible level of underwater noise. It would result in applying a sound barrier by investors and other users of marine environment. A useful tool to measure underwater noise is a device called the porpoise detector POD. This device performs well and deliver much information during installation a wind farm in the North Sea and provide a data about the influence of underwater noise on marine organisms.

For that reason is important to spread that method of collection a data about underwater noise. It allows to determine a scale of pollution in marine environment and cause its limitation. This valuable habitat is recognized as a biogeocenosis of great natural interest in the area of the European Union. That is why river of this type should be treated as objects of particular care, mainly because of rich populations of protected macrophytes, rarely met and threatened with extinction.

Although the total bird density and biomass are generally high, species richness declines with increasing urbanization. Our aim was to investigate how urban areas around the reservoir and its location near the city center or on the periphery of Poznan affect the structure and size of wintering bird communities. We also wanted to find out how the number of birds within the city boundaries changes with fluctuations of temperature.

We were counting waterfowl in Poznan, Poland, between November and February in the years - We conducted our surveys on 26 water reservoirs or complexes of water reservoirs and the fragment of the Warta river located within the city boundaries. We were counting birds once in the second decade of each month during each winter.

Around each reservoir, we digitalized buffer areas based on remote-sensing aerial photographs. In each buffer, we measured the percentage of built-up areas. We noticed some correlations between the number of the birds and the average temperature during the survey, as well as with the area of the water reservoir.

In these conditions, reservoirs above the area of 3 hectares and the Warta river seem to be the most important for wintering birds. Small reservoirs under 3 hectares during harsh winter conditions are not suitable for birds because of the ice cover, what makes the bigger lakes and the river the most important areas for wintering birds. We also expect a negative correlation between species richness and the extent of built-up area.

Both in a global scale and in European waters, underwater meadows are regarded as one of the most endangered marine habitats of coastal zones. In Polish coastal waters a degradation of eelgrass bed was observed between and A recent inventory of seabed habitats, provided by a Habitat Mapping program, documented that increasing areas are covered by underwater meadows.

It is important to understand the possible ecological effects of the currently observed restoration of the seagrass meadows. Seagrass can play a role of ecosystem engineers, i. The present study aimed to explore the seasonality and the role of an eel grass Zostera marina in shaping the sedimentary systems of the species poor southern Baltic Sea in terms of both modification of sediment characteristics and driving patterns of macrozoobenthic abundance and diversity.

The study was performed in five months October , March, June, July, October in two localities — one sheltered Ryw Mew and one exposed Jastarnia , where basic characteristics of the sediments and macrofauna communities were compared between sea grass beds and bare sands. The seagrass meadows occurred during the whole year and showed a strong seasonality pattern in density and biomass with the highest values documented in summer months.

The positive effect of sea grass vegetation on organic matter content chlorophyll a and POC and fine sediment trap was detected. The density and diversity of macrofauna differed significantly between sea grass beds and bare sands - higher densities were observed at vegetated bottom during summer months, while higher species number were noted at vegetated bottom, persisted throughout the whole year.

Zostera marina vegetation was shown to be an important driver of the benthic communities structure in the Puck Bay. The main useful aquifers in this area are connected Paleogene-Neogene aquifer and Quaternary aquifer.

Trzesiecko lake itself is a drainage basis for surface water and also for unconfined and shallow confined aquifer. These aquifers are very vulnerable to contamination. The sources of pollution which mainly affect the deterioration of chemistry ground water and surface water in this area are wood manufacture factory and warehouse of a railway petrol station located in the east part of town.

The next problem is the inflow of biogenic substances by Radacki Canal and by the flow of surface water and groundwater from the partly sanitary unsewered Trzesieka northern part of Szczecinek city. Based on the archival analysis performed during the period of well construction, it has been stated that the chemistry of the groundwater drained from Trzesiecko lake is variable and depends mainly on geogenical contamination of manganese and iron compounds and area development type increased chlorides and sulfates concentrations in the industrial part of the Szczecinek city.

Regarding surface water of Trzesiecko lake the analysis shows high concentrations of nitrogen especially nitrite ions and phosphorus components, hypoxia and the presence of formaldehyde and PAHs. In order to improve the ecological status of the lake, since it has been led on the revitalization processes fish stocking and mobile aeration with phosphorus inactivation. Despite improvement of the chemical condition of the water, it is only a temporary solution and to accelerate the processes, the pollution sources should be cut off.

The study area was situated in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gda sk. Prolonged warm season and shorter icing period in the coastal zone had an impact on supply of the organic matter to the sediments. Despite of the limitation of anthropogenic mercury loads, the climate changes in the moderate latitudes caused that the amount of this metal getting to the marine organisms did not decrease.

In order to fulfill various engineering demands more than one cubic meter of concrete per capita is currently produced worldwide. Because depending on quality requirements some 40 - kg of good quality water very often taken directly from the water treatment station is consumed in each tonne of concrete, there is an urgent need of using its alternative sources.

In the article some properties of fresh state consistency, loss of consistency versus time and air content and hardened concrete d compressive strength and sorptivity are presented. Both good quality water and waste wash water is used and three types of concrete composition: ordinary concrete OC , recycled aggregate concrete RAC and self-compacting concrete SCC are prepared as well as some analysis of waste wash water composition in the context of environmental aspects are presented.

Obtained results indicate that implementation of waste wash water in the concrete production process is necessary and can evoke only positive effects both environmentally and technologically. In marine environment many animals are periodically or permanently exposed to sulfidic conditions and possess some degree of sulfide tolerance. The toxicity of H2S is mainly due to inhibition of several enzymes and cytochrome c oxidase thus causing a breakdown of aerobic respiration at mostly low concentrations, which varies between species.

This compound is a product of sulfate reduction and is naturally produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in marine sediments. The purpose of research was to determine the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in pore waters.

Concentration of hydrogen sulfide was measured in June, August, October and November in Pore waters were collected using an airstone with a syringe. The determination of concentrations of H2S by using the methylene blue method. The temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen also were determined at each sampling site.

Hydrogen sulfide was present in sediments. The highest was observed in August and October. Moreover, the concentration was increasing with the increasing sediment depth. It is worth mentioning, that the duration of hydrogen sulfide was occasionally and was connected with decomposition of organic matter. Its implementation in agriculture often causes the pollution of soil, surface and ground waters, mainly due to the high content of nitrogen mineral fraction and a very high level of COD and BOD.

Meanwhile the natural fertilizers are a very good substrate for methane production in agricultural biogas plants. Digested pulp, obtained after manure and slurry fermentation, has significantly better parameters than non-fermented fertilizers. The paper presents a comparison of the composition and parameters of the fertilizers for fermentation and obtained digestate pulp.

Most ski areas feature favorable geographic and weather conditions such as steep slopes, adequate precipitation, and long duration of snow cover. Virtually every major ski area possesses a man-made snow production system. This type of system makes it possible to maintain the right conditions for winter sports. In addition, it is possible to open the ski season early and extend the ski season beyond its natural limit.

Hence, both skiers and ski area businesses benefit. The disadvantage is that man-made snow production poses a threat to local water resources. This includes changes in catchment water balance, changes in soil water chemistry, changes in plant cover, longer periods with snow cover, and a shorter vegetation period. Many ski areas are located close to protected natural areas such as national parks, landscape parks and Nature areas. The management of water resources demands best practices that yield a balance between development and the protection of water quality.

Sewerage and storm water network, provide facilities for the agglomeration in the planned area and contribute significantly to the protection of surface water resources. Sewerage network collects and withdrawn domestic wastewater to the to the main wastewater treatment plant and prevent their emission to surface water and infiltration into the ground. Storm network system reduces the risk of local flooding, increases the safety of driving on road surfaces and discharges the storm wastewater to the receiver such as local river, lake or ditches.

Despite the many advantages of this type of system, experts often focus on the selection and project of the network infrastructure, but they forget about the principles of sustainable water management. Taking into account a criterion for small retention, which allows to a more comprehensive way to manage storm water in the planed area and in some degree, will reduce water deficits during periods of drought. In the area with high-density housing and hard standing surface, the level of infiltration of rainwater into the ground is decreasing.

Therefore It is necessary to drain excess water through a network of stormwater system, but it is also important to consider the possibility of storing water resources, which can later be used for different purposes. Application of solutions such as rainwater drainage into the soil, dead-well, detention tanks, infiltration ditch, etc.

This paper presents the design of the network for the village Buszewo with the elements aimed the principle of small retention. They also collect biogens from fields or pastures and are of great significance in the water retention of the neighboring area. Three ponds were investigated in May Samples were taken from the open water zone. All the examined water bodies were characterized by high trophic conditions.

Pond Lubosina 1 is a pond with fish. The area in which, this pond is situated, is overgrown by sow wheat. Pond Ko le 2 represents an artificial type of pond. Crops of corn and wheat are found nearby. The third water body — pond Ko le 5 is also of artificial origin and is surrounded by sow wheat fields.

All of the these three ponds are very shallow. Their maximum depth oscillates between 0,9 and 1,5 m. Biocoenotic parameters of zooplankton community Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda , such as species richness, abundance and Shannon-Weaver diversity index, were taken into consideration. In two of these ponds a strong domination of two rotifers species — Anaureopsis fissa and Branchionus angularis — was recorded. They are both typical eutrophic species, which confirms the advanced trophy level found in these water bodies.

The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was generally quite low, however, in the pond without strong dominants it reached higher values average above 1,0 max 1,5. Despite the fact that samples were investigated from the water area, apart from prevailing pelagic zooplankters, we also found some littoral species from among two genera Lecane, and Trichocerca, as well as single littoral species such as Branchionus quadridentatus, Lepadella patella and Alona rectangula.

Crustacea were represented mainly by the larval stage of copepods — nauplii and copepodites. There was only one species of copepods recorded — Cyclops lacustris, which is an omnivorous from and it is typical of low trophic conditions. There were only single species of cladocerans observed, from two genera: Alona A. N N In most cases for tourism purposes and management are using areas with high environmental quality and interesting from the tourists point of view.

The same time there are also very sensitive to many kinds of human interference. There is still a problem with understanding of the influence of the tourism on the environment, mostly considered as negative and destroying. Water tourism impacts on the ecosystems of lakes and rivers, as well as on terrestrial one, in particular, the coastal zone. These influences are physical, chemical and biological, and due to the pressure unidirectional.

The presentation aims to characterize the impact of kayak tourism on the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems based on literature review and testing. Canoe tourism impact on the environment includes: changes in flora, fauna, morphology of the coastal zones of rivers and lakes. Spatial extent comprises concerning on lakes districts of Poland areas. The studies mainly concentrated at water trails in Brodnica Lake District.

Despite significant cost to use precious metals, recently proposed to use them as interior and exterior coatings for water pipes and fittings. Copper, which is a semi-precious metal, also has a much more effective antibacterial properties than the other materials used in such systems.

This will primarily be used in health care, public buildings and other places where the antiseptic properties of precious metals are of particular importance. The described methods do not involve high capital and operating costs. Moreover, a part of them can be used in field conditions without using specialized equipment. They can be also used by the Third World Countries where the access to clean water is limited.

Freshwater habitats occupied by charophytes are not only lakes, but also small water reservoirs. Water and wetland ecosystems were studied: lakes, peatlands, ditches and small anthropogenic reservoirs e.

Within the examined area, five species of Characeae were noted in various types of habitat Nitella mucronata, Nitella syncarpa, Chara delicatula, Chara globularis, Chara intermedia. In the examined small water reservoirs, the most significant factors influencing on the species - environment relationships were the depth and pH level of water. The presence of the family Characeae was also influenced by: oxygen saturation of water, dissolved oxygen concentration, the content of SO4, Na and K.

The study confirms the fact, that charophytes may occur in higher trophic status, but only in shallow water reservoirs. The results illustrate the impact of changes in forest cover on discharge of the Ochotnica River at Gorce Mountain ,01 km2 with atmospheric feedbacks. The study generally indicates that deforestation causes an increase in the annual mean discharge.

The dynamics of forest cover was studied using satellite images from to Forest cover changes were based also on archive maps and literature analysis. In this study we consider a year long time series of discharge of a mountain river, in Tylmanowa hydrological station of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, as well as precipitation over this drainage area. Giant energy consumption and the ecological requirements were reason to start a rational energy policy.

One of the most attractive and still little known physics phenomena in the context of drinking water and cooling energy acquisition is the use of air thermodynamic imbalance, as a source of renewable energy. The thermodynamic potential content of air allows for a significant reduction in its temperature by direct contact with water - this process is called direct evaporative cooling.

Direct evaporative cooling cycle operates based upon an interaction between water and air, in which air reduces its temperature by humidifying itself. Dissolved salts in seawater are practically non-volatile, so in case of contact with air, the evaporation process is only solvent - clean water.

After condensation and water treatment, liquid is suitable for human consumption. Obtaining drinking water by direct evaporative cooling is inefficient and its cooling potential is limited by the wet bulb temperature of the air. That is why authors of presented research have focused on the indirect evaporative cooling cycle. The best method of analyzing the process of generating cooling energy and drinking water is a multi-module computer simulation, based on a mathematical model.

Therefore, the original mathematical model and numerical solution of the differential equations algorithm for the heat and mass transfer processes has been created. This study examines the combined air-conditioning and desalination systems based on indirect evaporative recuperators. Systems based on exchangers with different schemes of air flow regeneration and cross have been compared.

The focus was on increasing the effectiveness of evaporation of the liquid, which is a source of drinking water and getting as low supply air temperature to the air-conditioned rooms. The analysis involved three groups of pipes, formed depending on a pipe function in a water supply system, pipe material, pipe age and time of exploitation.

The paper explains in details the basic reasons and further consequences of water pipe failures, especially social and environmental impacts of such failures. The paper also focuses on the problem of water loss, resulting from leaky pipes or joints and unexpected pipe failures. Since protection of water resources and rationalization of water consumption in the last years have been a priority to various societies, the paper shows how important is to prevent pipe failures in water supply systems.

Finally, paper depicts the rational methods, that could be used to minimize the risk of failures and further water loss in the systems. It presents a short characteristic of the Warta River to recognize and compare erosion process downstream of stabilization sills No. The purpose of this analysis is the specification variability dimension of local scour and description of flow velocities on the length of local scour.

In fact, microbial pathogens are considered to be human health risks, but only viruses and bacteria were widely studied, while protozoa were given little attention. The diarrhea may become profuse and chronic and in consequence life - threatening, particularly in immunocompromised or immunosuppressed persons. Both parasites share a broad host range, and both cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis are believed to be zoonoses.

Protozoa were considered to be a human health risk because they can be transmitted by drinking water and by exposure to recreational water such as lakes and streams. Sources of contamination of water and food may be diverse, but a particularly important, albeit varying role, is played by different host groups that act as reservoirs of infection.

In addition, they are capable of contaminating aquatic invertebrates which play an important role in the aquatic food chain and may act as a vector to human waterborne parasites. Moreover, foodborne transmission is also considered a risk because undercooked meats or raw meals can be a vehicle for enteric protozoa.

Sexual contacts also constitute a route for direct transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. However, pathogen detection methods in water are still expensive, inaccurate, and time-consuming. As a result, legislation has chosen to use indicators like Escherichia coli and another fecal and total coliforms to monitor biological water contamination.

Nevertheless, a different tool, such as aquatic invertebrate parasitism may be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. Protection of water resources from pollution and regular biological monitoring of water quality are the primary means of preventing epidemics. Formation of this pollution is caused by the ingress of hospital, industrial and municipal waste, as well as by runoff from arable and livestock farms and also with leachate from landfills to surface waters.

Presence of drugs in water, even in small concentration, can carry real consequences for aquatic organisms, disturb biological balance in ecosystem and even it can have an impact on a human health. Many active substances contained in pharmaceuticals are degrading very slowly in aquatic environment. Due to their lipophilicity, they can easily accumulate in tissues of aquatic organisms.

In the aquatic ecosystems drugs occur in mixtures with other substances, what makes difficulties in proper assessment of their real impact on the environment. Indeed, these compounds may mutually induce or suppress their toxic effects. During proceeding of research crustaceans Gammarus varsoviensis had been used.

The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the usefulness of scuds as bioindicators of water pollution by drugs. Fluoxetine antidepressant , propranolol antiarrhythmic drug and various mixtures had been used in the research. During the research the acute toxicity of the substances mentioned above had been analyzed - according to Polish Standard, and also the activity of oxidative enzymes in Gammarus varsoviensis — catalase and peroxidase - had been analyzed.

The growing relationship between the mortality of tested organisms and the concentration of tested compounds had been established. The increase of toxicity of the tested drugs in its mixture was also observed. Changes of vegetation in this lake were discussed on the basis of the phytocoenotic diversity of macrophyte vegetation, analyzed in the years , and Although the lake is intensely used for recreational purposes, the areas of characean meadows are large and represented by two charophyte communities: the Charetum tomentosae and Nitellopsidetum obtusae associations.

Their areas, especially of the latter one, increased in By contrast, the areas of phytocoenoses of Ceratophylletum demersi claimed to be an indicator of eutrophication and Potametum lucentis decreased and locally were even replaced by Nitellopsidetum obtusae communities. This situation indicates good water quality in this lake.

We suggest that is a result of intrabiocoenotic interrelationships leading to an improvement of water clarity. This state so called clear-water state is to a certain extent independent on the phosphorus concentrations and promote occurrence of submerged vegetation that — in return — maintain clear waters. Interestingly, among floating-leaved communities Nymphaeetum albo-candidae, which is ranked among rare association and built by a rare nymphaeid Nymphaea borealis was noted in and also in Excess stormwater causes severe flooding, but conversely long-term rainfall deficiencies contribute to the occurrence of drought with high spatial extension.

These two phenomena are often exacerbated by unsustainable urbanization, that result in disturbances of the global water cycle and increased surface runoff. In order to mitigate negative effects, i. The majority of cities in Europe and around the world have successfully applied sustainable stormwater management systems as an alternative to traditional stormwater practices and they are often an integral part of housing estates, urban green areas and private gardens.

The approach to urban stormwater management is gradually changing in Poland and increasing ecological awareness results in the need for more environmentally friendly practices. In addition to these ecological aspects, the economic benefits are also strictly connected with sustainable management. The assumption is to create a model of sustainable urban drainage system, which will be possible to implement in other residential areas, as well as in other public and private spaces.

Among the other hazardous substances, POPs are distinguished by their high toxicity and persistence in the environmental compartments. The unlimited use of PCP as a broadly applicable biocide has caused an increase of the inflow of this pollutant to the sea. Due to its hydrophobic character, molecules of PCP easily adsorb on the solid particles such as aerosols, suspended particulate matter, sediments, then undergo the process of accumulation at the sea bottom.

Followed by reemission from the sediment, pentachlorophenol is back into the circulation, thus threatening the populations of benthic organisms and then as a consequence of the biomagnification process become a chronic source of pollution of the aquatic environment, which is considered the most sensitive to their presence Muir, Eduljee, Knowledge about its biology and ecology is essential for appropriate conservation and rational management of the species.

Diet composition and growth rate of grayling have been relatively poorly studied, especially for populations from northwestern Poland. The objective of this study was to determine diet composition, food selectivity, feeding strategy and growth rate of graylings in the Pomeranian rivers: Gwda, Pilawa and Drawa. Sampling sites were located in the middle sections of the rivers, accordingly near Plytnica, Szwecja and Sitnica.

The graylings were caught by fly fishing from July to December in the years Their length and weight were measured, and content of stomachs was investigated. Consumed organisms were identified to species and then counted. Furthermore, in the years twenty invertebrate drift samples were collected to compare their taxonomic composition with graylings diet and determine its food selectivity.

Moreover, scales of 58 specimens were taken and photographed during last three years of research. The method of back calculation was used to estimate the body length for particular years of life and analyze growth rate. Data collected during the investigation enhanced scientific knowledge about grayling populations in Pomeranian rivers.

Results of this study have also practical value and could be advantageous for future management of the species. This approach is far from implementation of sustainable development such as the requirement of the Water Framework Directive - WFD. It is responsible for the deterioration of the ecological potential of water resources.

Rainwater runoff flushes all pollutions e. Polish law limits the introduction of only two hydrochemical parameters into surface waters - the concentration of total suspended solids and oil-derivative hydrocarbons. Research, which was carried out in Lodz shows, that rainwater sewage does not meet these standards, neither does the standards for the introduction of industrial wastewater to water bodies. Stream ecosystems are exposed to sudden changes in flow.

Ecological potential of urban rivers can be restored by applying ecosystem biotechnologies which connect the technical solution with natural process in environment. Green roofs are one of such solutions. The Sequential Biofiltration Systems are the next technology for improvement of water quality. The idea of the design of these systems combines engineering solutions with biological processes. The proper ecological potential of water bodies is required by WFD. It can be achieved by applying sustainable rain water management strategies and mentioned solutions.

It is necessary to act with attention and caution in order to maintain and improve water quality in them, especially when the main function of the object is water supply. The Dobczyce lake is the example of reservoir supplying water to the agglomeration of Cracow. To make the water supply inlet protecting algorithms more effective it is essential to create plans and scenarios for possible threats.

One of the tools suitable for this kind of prediction can be the RMA numerical model system. This paper presents a series of simulations and scenarios concerning the propagation of contaminants dissolved in water. The presentation introduces the possibilities of that program as a tool helpful in the management of a reservoir in the case of contamination appearance within the lake area.

It is the strongest of the estrogenic compounds. In aquatic environment it causes inter alia feminization of vertebrates. The main aim of research was to check if the EE2 can be photodegraded under environmentally relevant conditions. The experiment was run under simulated sunlight in natural water samples and distilled water.

The samples of different optical characteristics were enriched with EE2 ng. As a result of irradiation, concentration of EE2 in the solutions at the end of exposure dropped by 94 ng, ng and ng in distilled water, Puck Bay and Vistula water, respectively. The probable mechanism of the observed phenomenon is an energy transfer from photo-excited chromophoric dissolved organic matter CDOM or secondary reactions with the reactive transients produced upon irradiation of CDOM.

The lower efficiency of EE2 photodegradation results from the fact that EE2 absorbs mainly short-wave photons, practically absent in sunlight maximum of EE2 absorbance is at nm. They have biodiversity values as well as resource values and provide many services to the environment and humankind.

For example, they recycle nutrients, purify water, attenuate floods, recharge ground water and provide habitats for wildlife. Identifying and understanding the importance of aquatic ecosystems is a difficult and complicated process. As wildlife corridors they can provide both aquatic and terrestrial connectivity for many species. In urban areas, they can provide significant recreational opportunities and important linkages in a highly fragmented landscape.

As a local core reserves they can be essential habitat for a wide range of plants, mammals, insects, birds, fish, and other organisms also those that are scarce or endangered. Amount of evapotranspirated water depends on many factors driving or limiting the process of green water fluxes.

One of them, characterized in this study, is vegetation. The investigated problems concern: 1 the spatial and temporal patterns of evapotranspiration, 2 vegetation dynamics and 3 interactions between evapotranspiration and vegetation. A study was conducted on the example of the Nurzec river catchment. It is a lowland catchment located in eastern Poland, draining the area of the km2.

Many methods allow to receive evapotranspiration point values, but it is harder to estimate spatial patterns of this process. During the last decade remote sensing methods have become very useful in hydrology studies. Classic methods using meteorological data can be extended by remote sensing data applied to develop validated algorithms. Both evapotranspiration and NDVI values arrange in seasonal cycles with minimum in winter and maximum in summer.

What is more study of interaction between evapotranspiration and NDVI values revealed high correlation. The main task of these reservoirs is water storage in excess time and dispose water in dry periods. Reservoirs also have many other tasks to achieve.

For example they are used for electricity production. Reservoirs have a significant impact on the surrounding environment. One of the most important job of environmental engineering is the analysis how the work regime of the reservoir influences on water quality in the lake. Numerical modeling is one of the methods useful in analysis of different work scenarios of artificial lakes.

This research concerns the influence of the Por bka- ar pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant on water quality in the Por bka Lake. The power plant works in daily cycle and has two work regimes. At times of low electrical demand, excess grid power is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When the demand is high, water is released back into the lower reservoir through turbines, generating electricity.

Estrogens are often not biodegradable. It is not possible to eliminate these compounds completely during the sewage treatment process. The marine surface waters receive inputs of these compounds from rivers and runoff. Knowledge of their behavior and fate in the Baltic Sea is still limited.

The tests were performed on Gammaridae, because they are considered as a highly tolerant species, inhabiting commonly both marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide, including the Baltic Sea, and they are used as indicator organisms for toxicological tests. The test species has replaced native species in areas in which they occur. The specimens were of a similar length. Each individual was put for 14 days into a plastic beaker of 80 mL capacity containing a specific hormone concentration.

The water without hormone and water contained ethanol the solvent for hormone were controls. Mortality was observed each day during the exposition and for 14 days after the end of the exposition. The period of collector exposure depended on precipitation time and minimum volume of precipitation sufficient for chemical analyses.

Besides pH and conductivity measurements, samples were analyzed for organic and elemental carbon. In the atmosphere carbon is classified mainly as elemental and organic carbon. Elemental carbon EC is emitted to the atmosphere as a primary aerosol during incomplete combustion of biofuels, fossil fuels and biomass.

Organic carbon OC can be present in both primary and secondary aerosols. Primary OC is formed during combustion processes, including unleaded gasoline combustion, biomass burning and agricultural activity. In addition, it can be emitted into the atmosphere as spores, pollens or particles of soil. Secondary OC originates from oxidation and gas-to-particle conversion of volatile organic compounds VOC. Both fractions can be removed via wet deposition from the ambient air.

The aim of this study was to clarify the role of rainfall in cleansing the atmosphere in the urbanized coastal zone of the Baltic Sea from organic and elemental carbon. The average concentration of organic carbon in rainfall was Content of elemental carbon in the rainfall was at least one order of magnitude smaller than of organic carbon.

Its average concentration was 0. The life quality is determined by the availability of new technologies and jobs, as well as the provision of green areas, which supply ecosystem services. The condition of such areas is dependent on the quality and availability of water.

Water bodies are also a main criterion for selection of recreational areas by the inhabitants of Lodz. Considering the above, the main purpose of the research was to define the key socioeconomic drivers of water quality in the city. The research consisted of two steps. The first study ranked and selected the key socioeconomic drivers based on relevant literature.

The drivers were then prioritized by a number of participants randomly selected from public officials, students, researchers and members of non-governmental organizations. The respondents assigned eleven features to develop a risk profile of the each driver. The features comprised: damage potential, probability, irreversibility, spatial scale, connectedness, acceleration, persistence, time delay, invisibility, information unavailability and public mobilization.

It shows that an intuitive approach and a more detailed analysis of the each driver provide different pictures of its possible socioeconomic impact on water resources in the city. We compared the frequency of fights, rapes, courtships, copulations and whistles on water basins with low and high population density and in different phenology periods. The study shows significant correlation between the number of ducks on ponds and the frequency of fights as well as between whistles and fights and whistles and seasons.

The figures show that there is a relationship between population density and frequency of fights. On water basins with many Mallards, more conflicts between the birds were observed than on ponds with low population density. This state of affairs can result from high levels of stress due to overpopulation or male competition over females.

Rapes were only observed in the breeding period March-May. This behaviour does not occur outside of the breeding season which undoubtedly indicates the role of rape in the breeding success of rapists. Rape is one of the elements of sperm competition between males, which continues after mating if the sperm of two or more males overlap near the site of fertilization in females.

We also observed, that courtships and copulations most often occurred in the breeding period March-May , but less in winter and we did not notice this kind of behaviour in the summer June-July. It was found that there is a significant correlation between fights and whistles. Whistles are part of mating when males try to impress females.

Our study also shows that there is a relationship between whistles and the phenology period. We observed whistles generally in the autumn October-February , whereas in the summer June-July they were noticed just occasionally. Daily precipitation totals in and as well as monthly totals and numbers of days with precipitation of various amounts during the long-term period were used.

The annual and monthly precipitation from the years were compared to the period in terms of precipitation anomalies - according to criteria of Z. Kaczorowska and S. Unusual precipitation conditions in the years and were characterized and compared. Abnormally high precipitation was recorded in six months of that year. They can be covered by a thin ice layer or temporarily open in warmer periods.

The main factors which influence the ice melting and formation of cryoconite holes are dust and organic particles which decrease ice albedo. Moreover, mineral particles and cryoconite organisms influence the depth and size of cryoconite holes. The first biological studies on cryoconite holes were conducted in the late 19th century and since then have been continued by a number of researchers.

Up to now in these extreme microenvironments many organisms such as cyanobacteria, protozoans and micrometazoans rotifers, tardigrades, copepods, larvae insects have been reported. Nevertheless, knowledge of the cryobiota in the ice holes is still incomplete and further studies are needed. One of the examples may be cryoconite holes on the Hans glacier in Hornsund Spitsbergen, Svalbard.

In the samples collected from this locality four tardigrades have been found and two of them are new for science. The aim of this study is to summarize the present knowledge of the cryoconite holes with a special emphasis on the glaciers in Polar Regions.

Key words: glaciers, Svalbard, Tardigrada The research is carried out and financially supported within the Diamond Grant for the years project number DI Assessment of surface water quality changes in Wielkopolska was based on the Provincial Inspector of Environmental Protection monitoring results and scientific publications.

Over the last 10 years, the system of sewage management in municipalities steadily improving.

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