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A fan can break down into two parts: fan motor and fan blade. Fan motor consumes electricity and performs the spinning motion. The fan blade is usually made of plastic that is designed at a certain angle of attack so that it can push air effectively. When attached together, they blow air.
Too much airflow causes incomplete condensation and evaporation, affecting the performance and lifespan of the air conditioner. Excessive airflow at the evaporator coil slows down the dehumidification process, resulting in the relative humidity of air not reduced to a comfortable level. Fan blades are usually made of plastic due to their low cost and lightweight.
The lesser it weight, the lesser energy it consumes. However, some applications required stainless steel which is a much more heavy material in order to resist corrosion. The fan of an air conditioner consumes relatively less power, second to the compressor. Misaligned fans can produce excessive vibration and noise. Expansion valve is a metering device that used to control the amount of refrigerant released to the evaporator while expanding it in the process causing a rapid drop in the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant.
An expansion valve can be found at the evaporator or the indoor unit of an air conditioner. Commonly, there are two types of expansion valves: thermal expansion valves and electronic expansion valves. A thermal expansion valve contains a small amount of expandable gas in its sensing bulb. When a certain temperature is reached, the gas expanded and triggers an opening of the valve, allowing a certain amount of refrigerant to pass through.
An electronic expansion valve relies on an electrical signal to control its valve opening. Unlike a thermal expansion valve which has a fixed range of operation, an electronic expansion valve is more flexible on the range of operation because the strength of its electrical signals can be altered by reprogramming the controller.
Modern air conditioners use electronic expansion valves to achieve a more precise refrigerant control. Over time, the electronic expansion valve can save more energy than the thermal expansion valve. Filter drier is a filtration device used to capture small dirt particles and remove excess moisture in a refrigeration system. Filter drier can be found inside the outdoor unit of an air conditioner.
Particles such as metal chips and specks of dirt can be gathered inside refrigerant copper pipes during installation. When an air conditioner is turned on for the first time, these particles will be captured by the filter drier. Besides, a filter drier removes excessive moisture in the refrigerant for the air conditioner to maintain its intended performance.
Because the refrigerant is circulating in a closed-loop, a filter drier only works whenever there is charging of refrigerant. In another word, excluding the initial startup, a filter drier is in action whenever there is a repair of refrigerant gas leakage.
The filter media inside a filter drier can't be replaced, one whole piece of the filter drier has to be changed. Hence, some technicians might recommend changing the filter drier when repairing a refrigerant gas leakage. Printed circuit board or PCB or IC board or control board, is an electronic board in an air conditioner used to control the operation of almost all of the components including the compressor, fans, expansion valve, and others such as remote control and inverter. The PCB can be found in both the indoor unit and the outdoor unit of a split air conditioner.
Modern air conditioners use PCB or electronic board extensively to provide better features such as mobile phone control via an app over the WiFi. Typically, you'll see three black tank-alike components inside an AC outdoor unit. They are different in sizes; small, big, bigger.
They are the filter drier, compressor, and accumulator tank. Accumulator tank is a protective device that prevents the liquid refrigerant from entering into a compressor, preventing the cause of irreversible damages to a compressor. An accumulator tank is structured in a way that the gas refrigerant is prioritized over the liquid refrigerant when leaving the accumulator tank.
Thus, protecting the compressor because liquid refrigerant is unable to be compressed. I captured some of the images from AC Service Tech. Feel free to follow the link to an explanation video where they go in-depth on the accumulator tank.
Filter is used in an air conditioner to block dust and thus, simplify the cleaning process, maintain efficiency and prolong the lifespan of an air conditioner. Fundamentally, a filter is not required for the operation of an air conditioner. However, without a filter, dust will quickly gather at the condenser and evaporator coil, blocking air from passing through the coils, causing incomplete condensation and evaporation, affecting the performance and reducing the lifespan of an air conditioner.
With a filter, the majority of the dust can be captured before entering the coils. Once the filter gathered a significant amount of dust, it can be washed and reuse. A filter is an extremely convenient and cost-effective solution to maintain the performance of an air conditioner.
However, not all filters are washable. Usually, high-efficiency filters such as bag and HEPA filters, are not washable. They need to be replaced periodically to maintain their filtrating performance. These high-efficiency filters can be found in air conditioners in hospitals and clean rooms for semi-conductor. Copper pipes are used to connect the indoor unit and the outdoor unit of an air conditioner.
Refrigerant circulates between the indoor and outdoor unit to remove heat from a room via the copper pipes. The refrigerant inside the copper pipe is very low in temperature when traveling from the condenser to the evaporator. Thus, insulating the copper pipes is necessary to prevent the losses of energy or the losses of the coldness and hence, to prevent the drop of energy-efficiency of the air conditioner. Besides, insulating the copper pipe prevents water droplets from forming around the copper pipes due to condensation.
Therefore, preventing water dripping. Copper pipe is always used to connect the indoor and outdoor unit of an air conditioner. No other materials are more suitable than copper. I wrote an article specifically on why copper pipes are used in air conditioning. The article covered the strength of copper in air conditioning and outlined why other materials are not suitable. An air conditioner not just cools the air but it also dehumidify or remove the moisture of the air.
Hence, an air conditioner must remove some of the moisture in the air to provide maximum comfort. An air conditioner removes moisture through the condensation of water vapor in the air. Not to confuse with the condensation of refrigerant, the condensation of air occurs at the evaporator or indoor unit of the air conditioner. During condensation, moisture in the air will form water droplets and discharged via the drain pipe of an air conditioner.
In order for the water vapor in the air to condensate, the temperature of the contacting surface must be below the dew point of the air at the given moment. Air circulates back to the indoor unit of the air conditioner and passes through the chilling evaporator coil. The temperature of the contacting surface evaporator coil is well below the dew point. Therefore, water vapor in the air condenses into liquid water and the relative humidity of the air drops, the air is dehumidified.
Typically, a single-phase power cable connects to the outdoor unit of a residential split air conditioner. From the outdoor unit, one set of single-phase power cables is connected to its indoor unit. For inverter type, one extra signal cable is required for the indoor unit. Most residential air conditioners are with a capacity of not more than 2. The rated current of a 2. Thus, 3x1c 2. As for signal cable, it is usually 1x1c 1. First of all, at its core, an air conditioner is working based on the laws of thermodynamics.
An air conditioner uses the refrigeration cycle to perform heat absorption and rejection and therefore, provide cooling. Next, air conditioners require specific refrigerants to operate. The refrigerant in an air conditioner goes through 4 processes which are compression, condensation, expansion, and evaporation.
Other components in the air conditioner are minor but important to the overall performance of the air conditioner. Moreover, an air conditioner not just cools the air but also dehumidifies the air to a level that is comfortable for humans. Water vapor condensates into liquid water and discharged through the drain pipe of an air conditioner, reducing the relative humidity of the air.
Lastly, air conditioners require power and thus, properly sized cables must connect the condenser outdoor unit and evaporator indoor unit with appropriate conduit for cable protection. These are the top selling digital products made by me and sold on aircondlounge. Check them out and see which products fit your needs. Kick start your HVAC design journey with nine 9 calculators, five 5 diagrams and three 3 charts.
I reviewed and compared hundreds of air conditioners. These are my latest recommended products. Check them out if you're looking to buy one! A high efficiency and very reliable wall-mounted mini split with the latest environmental-friendly R32 refrigerant gas and quality from Japan.
A beautifully designed window air conditioner with the latest environmental-friendly R32 refrigerant gas that runs more quietly than most other window ACs. Portable air conditioner recommended by 6 reputable reviewers. Low noise operation and high efficiency. Portable air conditioners are convenient to use until you find out that they need to be vented with a hose.
If you don't vent it, it's not going to cool your room. But, why portable air conditioners Portable air conditioners are convenient because they can be moved around in the house. However, their portability is often restricted by their power cord length. So, can you use an extension cord Skip to content. AC Working Principle in Diagram. AC Working Principle with Components. A picture of R32 or HFC refrigerant contained in a tank.
Simplified RA Operating Condition. A simplified P-H diagram for actual vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. Scroll compressor on the left, reciprocating compressor on the right. Basic operation of a scroll compressor by Aire Acondicionado. Compressor rubbers. A compressor shouting out of dissatisfaction. Condenser coil at the left, evaporator coil at the right.
Illustration of processes happen at the condenser coil. Thermal expansion valve on the left, electronic expansion valve at the right. A filter drier before and after cutting open. PCB of an AC outdoor unit. AC refrigerant flow in a dissected AC accumulator tank. Refrigerant pipes at the AC outdoor unit. Air conditioning copper pipe and insulation. Simple design Easy to use Key values included View Product. View Product. Google still has the same solid management in place and isn't in any sort of financial, litigation, or other major trouble either, right?
In short, investor psychology. When people panic you see a lot of short term fluctuation in share prices as a result of their behavior. They calm fears by reminding people that inflation is in check, promise to keep pumping cash in to ease the liquidity crunch, and demonstrate again that they are willing to do whatever is necessary to stabilize the economy and avoid a prolonged recession.
Professional analysts and news pundits are clamoring again but this time they tell us that the Fed is making some brilliant moves. The same investors that panicked yesterday panic again, but this time they are flooding back into the market for fear of missing out on a big rally which they ironically create.
Only one day later, Google's stock price soars by 4. Do you think Google's true value really changed so drastically in a two day period? Of course not. There is simply a lot of volatility in the short term, which is why we want you to understand a little about investor psychology, so you can avoid the herd. In the example, the herd sold on the way down and bought on the way up. If you buy high and sell low you are guaranteed to lose money.
Unfortunately we are programmed to act this way, your mind will try to get you to make stupid stock market moves whenever you are scared or stressed, you'll have to make a conscious effort to avoid these mistakes. To avoid all of this unnecessary stress, master your own psychological impulses. Hold on to your winners for as long as you can, at least a year, and don't let short-term market volatility scare you into or out of the market.
Long term investors win, short term investors lose, and that's not a theory, it's a fact. Also, avoid bouncing between strategies when the market changes, reacting to news, or trying to time the market by moving back and forth from cash to stocks. If you understand your strategy and are good at implementing it, you should wind up with high quality stocks that you bought at a good price and that you can hold onto for a long period of time. Dollar Cost Averaging means investing a fixed amount of money on a regular basis.
The benefit is that you are always buying more stock when prices are low since the market trend is usually upward. The reason this is so important for you to learn is because most investors do the exact opposite. Don't you feel the urge to buy when the market is bullish and rising and feel the urge to wait or sell when the market is bearish and dropping? Most people do, and as a result they buy when prices are high and do nothing or sell when prices are low or falling.
This kind of behavior greatly increases your cost basis and decreases your returns, so avoid it, be a dollar-cost averager. Remember that even if the market tanks it always recovers for long term investors, and when it is low you will snatch up a lot of shares at bargain prices. As long as you are dollar-cost averaging you will always be buying shares at a cheaper price.
While this is actually a component of investor psychology, it's important enough to have earned spot 9 on our top 10 list of investing principles. Sounds silly doesn't it, why would any investor hold on to their losers and sell their winners? Oddly, this is what many people do, and not just beginners.
Even seasoned investors will fall into this habit occasionally if they're not diligent about sticking to their strategy. Let's first talk about holding on to losers, almost everyone has done this so it's an easier concept to absorb. We often put a lot of hard work into selecting investments.
However, investing is a numbers game, we can't be right every time and we will inevitably pick losers now and then. When this happens, rather than realizing that we either missed something when we did our research or that something has fundamentally changed about the company or the market, many of us still stubbornly believe that we made a good investment.
Because we worked so hard to identify a good stock, we find it hard to believe that we were wrong. Even if the price is dropping while our other investments are going up we hold onto it because we're sure the loss is only a temporary correction and that the stock will head back up very soon. This rarely ends well. Eventually we realize that no recovery is in sight and we sell the stock back into the market at a much larger loss than we should have taken.
On the other side of the equation, when we review our portfolio and see that an investment has done particularly well, we are often tempted to take a profit because we don't think that any company can sustain such exceptional performance for long. Stock investors are more likely to behave this way than fund investors since they are looking at individual stocks but it can happen to anyone.
Let's look at Google again since it's a company we've already used for several examples. As a result, there was an enormous amount of selling volume in April. Had Google's growth potential or business environment changed? No, the selling was simply early profit-taking by skittish investors. Ouch, painful lesson. As painful as it is to take a loss, smart investors set sell limits for every investment that they buy. If it gets close to that limit, they reevaluate to see if they erred in their research or if something has fundamentally changed.
Regardless of the situation, if the investment hits the sell limit, they get rid of it, they don't ever hold on hoping it will go up because they know their money will be better off working for them elsewhere. On the other side of the equation side, avoid selling winners by doing as much homework before you sell as you did before you bought. If the company still meets all of the criteria for your strategy, isn't it still a winner and shouldn't you hold onto it?
Trust your strategy and hold onto any investment that still meets all of your buy criteria, there is no limit to how high a stock can go so price appreciation should get you excited, not scare you to the sidelines. Don't throw good money after bad.
If you hold onto losers or sell winners, you are not managing your money efficiently and this will kill your returns. The easiest way to correct this behavior is to stay objective with every investing decision and stick to your strategy, never let your emotions make investing decisions for you. This is so true about everything in life and it's especially true about investing.
As a beginner, you are probably overwhelmed by the amount of information you need to learn to become a savvy investor. This is a good time to point out an important fact. Your confusion is a result of your lack of knowledge and from the overwhelming amount of new information being thrown at you, NOT because investing is complex and sophisticated.
Don't stray from the keep it simple philosophy as you become a more seasoned investor. You have to understand the basics of your strategy, but don't needlessly add complexity because you feel being a more sophisticated investor will make you more successful. Index investors choose funds that own the stocks of whatever index they'd like to track That's it, that's the whole strategy.
You were expecting more? Half of our Fund Street Monthly newsletter is dedicated to Index and ETF investing because it is one of the best strategies even though it is also one of the simplest. Bottom line, if you adhere to the 10 Basic Principles of Investing, always continue to learn, implement your strategy well, and stay abreast of changes in the market and the economy you will be a successful investor.
Have you heard of Peter Lynch? Invest in what you know. Sounds simple but there is a lot of wisdom in this advice. Lynch meant that in our everyday lives we tend to become experts in some field or another either because it relates to our career or because we use related products on a daily basis. For example, if you have been a pharmaceutical salesman for the past 15 years, you probably have picked up a lot of knowledge about the major companies, the industry, how a product is tested and marketed, not to mention detailed knowledge on any drugs that you have sold during your career.
This expertise is your foundation and gold mine as an investor. To emphasize this point, imagine you are the pharmaceutical rep described above and you are trying to decide between two different investments. The first is a profitable and established pharmaceutical company that you've been competing against for 15 years.
Your friends think it's a boring stock and point out that their share price hasn't budged in five years while the market has made great gains. They tell you that new drugs come out all the time, and remind you that this company has already released two this year without making any impression on investors or impact to the share price.
However, you know that this pharmaceutical company has solid patents and recently received FDA approval for a cheaper generic version of a very expensive drug that your company makes. Sales for your company's competing drug have plummeted as a result. You also know that this is a popular drug, many doctors will prescribe it to the elderly on a regular basis.
You ask around different companies and reps in your industry and find that no one else has anything in testing or pending approval that can compete on a cost basis. Finally, this company is huge, they will have no trouble digging into their deep pockets to market and mass produce. The second potential investment is a tech IPO that your broker and a couple of your friends are really excited about.
Apparently they invented some type of technology that can improve the speed of all search engines and they just landed Google as a client, the major player in the search engine space. As a result of the Google deal, they are already making money which isn't always the case for many startup tech companies.
You're seeing a lot of news about this IPO, it looks like it will be a hot stock since there's already so much buzz. Your broker even offered to get you some IPO shares which will probably net you a nice profit on the very first day of trading.
What would Peter Lynch do? He would buy the pharmaceutical company every single time. Here's what you know. The well-established pharmaceutical company has a new patent protected drug that is already approved for sale by the FDA. The tech company has an unproven product, investors don't even know if major search engines such as their new client, Google, will need or continue to use the technology.
The drug is already proving itself by outselling you, the competition. You have no idea how well the tech company is equipped to compete and it sounds like they may be dependent on their one major client for survival, Google. Not a strong position. Finally, there won't be any competitors for several years for the drug company because no one is even testing a competing product yet. What are the barriers to entry for the tech company, could one pop up tomorrow or could Google or Yahoo just make their own version of the technology?
We certainly don't want you to get the impression that you should avoid every strategy, stock, or fund that you don't know much about. What we really want you to understand is that you should play to your strengths when you invest. Invest in what you know when you can and when you want to try something new, take the time to learn a lot about it first. Ignoring this rule can ruin even great strategies. For example, a value investor is always looking for great bargains, i. But if they buy companies that they know little about, more often than not they'll wind up with a stock that has done something to deserve a low share price and would have been best avoided.
There is an enormous amount of information available for any stock you'd like to buy. Study the company, their competition, the industry, and anything else you can think of before you decide. This sounds like a lot of work but your portfolio will reward you generously in the form of profits if you do your homework. One of the most common and costly mistakes that new investors make is not measuring their performance against an appropriate benchmark.
Many don't compare to ANY benchmark, much less an appropriate one. What is the danger? The biggest drawback is you will never really know how well or poorly you are investing. There are tons of them, they are easy to look up, and there are plenty of free tools available that will allow you to compare your performance to an index with just a couple of mouse clicks.
We will provide a list of the most popular and which strategy they match in the chart below. The year is and all of your money is invested in Large Cap US companies. Pretty strong, right? The problem is that you have absolutely no basis of comparison. Now let's add some information and see how drastically it can change the picture. To add insult to injury, let's also throw in the possibility that your returns are much less because you selected highly volatile companies and a few tanked.
Regardless of your strategy or goals, you should always compare your month-over-month and annual performance to an appropriate benchmark. We already mentioned that if you don't compare you'll never know if you're improving as an investor. Another major reason is to see how well you are implementing your investing strategy.
For example, if you've chosen to purchase large growth stocks and technology stocks a good index to compare too would be the NASDAQ If you outperform the index for several years in a row, then you have proven that you are good at implementing your strategy of buying high potential growth and technology stocks. Unfortunately, many people think that buying an index fund is like throwing in the towel.
They feel this way because it means accepting the market returns, index investors aren't really implementing any traditional investment strategy. If you can't beat 'em, join 'em. No problem. That means you'll look at more than one index and you should compare each investment or group of investments to their relevant index. Germany's version of the Dow.
This is a Blue Chip stock index consisting of 30 major German companies. Popular German Index and a good measure of the health of the German economy. Good benchmark for any large cap German based stocks. Best-known and most widely followed market indicator in the world and a good measure of US economic health. Perfect benchmark for Blue Chip, large cap and Income Investors. Good benchmark for any large cap UK based stocks.
Popular Hong Kong Exchange index and a good measure of China's economic health. Good benchmark for any large cap Chinese stocks. Index of foreign stocks. Focuses only on developed countries in Europe, Asia and the far east. Good benchmark for anyone that has a portion of their portfolio allocated to developed foreign countries. Good benchmark for anyone that has a portion of their portfolio allocated to developing foreign countries.
Trane is certainly investing in the future of air conditioning and it sees similar opportunities as Carrier does in improving IAQ and reducing. AC Buying Guide: Features And Aspects To Consider When Buying An Air Conditioner ; Power Saving. Less. Comparatively Better ; Price. Cheaper. The working principle of air conditioning is Vapor Compression Cycle. This can be understand easily from following image. First of all understand basic.