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Look for discount stores. Some discount stores like Costco and Target sell Uggs style winter boots. No side effectshave been reported from the usage of the plant Dlamini , pers. Botanical descriptionMelia azedarach is described as a small to medium-sized shrub or tree. Branches are s to ut, with purplish bark dotted with buff-colored lenticels. Leaves are twice to three time's compound, alternate and puberulent to glabrous. Leaflets are cm long, serrate or crenate, dark green above, of ten with sparse hairs along the veins and lighter and generally smoothbelow Van Wyk and Van Wyk, , Pooley, The fruits are poisonous Pooley, Umonoids and hydroxyamoorastatin compoundshave been isolated from the Melia azedarach fruits Coria et al.
Conservation statusMeJia azedarach is not endangered. Botanical descriptionPsidium species are evergreen trees with opposite leaves, fluffy white flowersand rounded to oblong edible berries Hutching et al. Distribution The guava has been cultivated and distributed by man, birds and animals forsuch a long time that its origin is uncertain, but it is believed to originate fromsouthern Mexico Mor to n, The guava has become naturalized in manyparts of the world and is widely cultivated as a commercial fruit crop Hutchinget aI.
Data from ethnobotanical survey The guava tree is cultivated in home gardens and can grow naturally inforests, where plant growth ranges from drylands to wetlands. Guava fruitsare edible. Leaves which are mostly available in summer and can be collectedanytime of the day are used to treat diarrhoea.
The medicine is prepared byadding either cold or boiling water to crushed leaves and then filtering. The cold water prepared medicine is administered orally, while the one preparedby boiling water is administered as an enema.
Oral dosage is not specifiedand enema dosage also depends on the person using it or the patient. Noside effects have been reported from the usage of the plant Dindi , pers. Chemical content The family Myrtaceae is known for various ethereal oils found in most or all of the unlignified shoot tissues of the shoots.
The se oils sesquiterpenoids,triterpenoids etc. Scattered tanniferrous cells are of ten present and the plants nearlyalways contain proanthocyanins and usually also ellagic acid and gallic acid. Guava leaf is rich in tannins and other phenolic compounds, of whichamri to side is of particular interest. Another biologically interesting compoundis guajaverin, a glycoside of quercetin. Tannins are known for intestinalastringents and haemostatic.
The tannins presence can plausibly explain the. Psidium guajava fruits have highantioxidant activity and are to tally phenolic Salazar et al. Conservation statusPsidium guajava is not endangered. Botanical DescriptionPrunus persica is a deciduous fruit tree. The leaves are lanceolate and theflowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; they are solitary orpaired. The fruit is a drupe with a single large seed encased in hard wood withyellow or whitish flesh. The seed is red-brown, oval shaped and 1.
DistributionThis plant is distributed all over the world as it is a cultivated fruit tree Brown,, Szalay et al. Leaves also ease vomiting and morning sickness during pregnancy Brown, Data from ethnobotanical surveyPlant growth ranges from drylands to wetlands. The leaves, which are mostlyavailable in summer and collected at anytime of the day, have potential to treat diarrhoea. The medicine is prepared by pouring either boiling or coldwater to crushed leaves and then filtering. The medicine prepared by coldwater is administered orally and the medicine prepared by boiling water isadministered as enemas.
Both oral and enema doses are not specific. Noside effects have been reported from the usage of the plant Bafana Mhlongo, pers. Prunus persica fruit hashigh antioxidant activity Kardosova and Machova, Conservation statusPrunus persica is not endangered as it is cultivated as a fruit tree. Botanical description The Marula is an erect tree of up to 15 meters tall, with a round crown and arough flaky mottled baric The leaves are divided in to 10 or more pairs of sharply pointed leaflets.
The compound leaves are grey-green in colour, butpale yellow prior to being shed. The flowers are bome in small oblongclusters. Male and female flowers occur separately, usually but not always onseparate trees. Male flowers are more conspicuous. Female flowers are round to oval, green when young becoming butter- yellow at later stages Roodt, The fruit is much sought after for its delicious pulp, high vitamin Ccontent and tasty, edible nuts.
The tree is best known for its golf ball sizedfruit which it bears during summer Roodt, , Van Wyk et al. DistributionPlants in this family grow in both tropical and subtropical environments. The marula is widespread in Africa from Ethiopia in the north to Kwazulu-Natal inthe south. In South Africa the plant is more dominant in the Limpopo province. The marula does not flourish in deepsand and therefore occurs predominantly on firm soil.
Medicinal and Spiritual UsesBark decoctions are administered as enemas for malaria Roodt, Medicine known as "umganu" appears to be widely used for abdominal pains. Roots are used for many purposes in Zimbabwe including heart pain,schis to somiasis, sore eyes, menorrhaghia etc. In east Africa the bark is used for to othaches, constipation and s to mach disorders Hutchings et al.
The Botswana people use an infusion of the fruit to wash tickinfestedlives to ck. The Zulus and Tongas call the marula tree the marriagetree and a brew of the bark is administered dUring a cleansing ritual beforemarriage Roodt, The Marula tree is used as an anti-plasmodial,antimalarial Gathirwa et al. Data from ethnobotanical surveyMarula grow mostly in forest and in drylands. The bark, which can becollected from the wild or bought from the muthi markets, is used to treat diarrhoea.
According to informants, the crushed bark is boiled and thenfiltered to make the medicine that is administered with half a cup given to children and one cup to adults, as an enema. No side effects have beingreported from the usage of the plant Dlamini , pers. Chemical contentThis family of plants is commonly tanniferous, with tanniferous cells orelongate sacs in the parenchyma tissues usually prodUcing procyaninns butthey seldom have ellagic acid.
The plant produces 5-deoxyftavonys,biflavonyls and at least sometimes, accumulates quebrachi to l. The bark yields3. The Marula tree was reported not to be to xic Gathirwa et al. The plant contains f1avanoids, phenolic compounds including f1avonols,catechins, proathocyanidins, anthocyanidins and is of lavonoids Ndhlala et al. Conservation statusSclerocarya birrea is not endangered. Botanical descriptionSchotia brachypetala is a medium to large tree with wide-spreading branches.
The plant has a single trunk that sometimes branches low down. The tree canreach the height of 22 m. The bark is rough and brown or grey brown. The flowers are rich deep red and are produced in massive amounts. The fruit ishard, flattened woody, dark brown and contains flattened pale brown seeds Pooley, Medicinal and Spiritual UsesBark is used in red bark mixtures known as ikhubalo to ward of f evil spiritsand to cure unspecified ailments.
The se mixtures are of ten taken orally andalso washed with during purification rites after the death of a relative. The mixtures are also used to strengthen the body and to steam the face. Barkinfusions are taken as emetics for pimples, while decoctions are taken forheartburn and after excessive beer drinking. The roots are used for dysenteryand diarrhoea treat ment Hutching et al.
The bark is used to make the red dye for sangomas. InZimbabwe roots are also used for ailments known as chidyiso. Powder fromthe leaves is applied to tropical ulcers and smoke from the leaves is inhaledfor nosebleeds.
Bark is used to wash and to reduce swelling of the body Hutching et al. Schotia brachypetala bark is used for treat ment of mental health problems Stafford et al. Data from ethnobotanical surveySchotia brachypetala prefers to grow in dry lands. The mode of medicinepreparation to treat diarrhoea is crushing the bark, boiling and then filtering.
Schotia brachypetala can also be mixed with Sclerocarya birrea for diarrhoea treat ment. The medicine prepared from this plant is only administered asenemas. The dosage depends on individuals, and must be taken only once aday. No side effects have been reported from the usage of the plant. Schotiabrachypetala has also been reported as being used for back pains MfanaMhlongo , pers.
The plant has been reported to contain sero to nin, noradrenaline, and adrenalinecompounds. Conservation stabJsSchotia brachypetala is not endangered. W'8b"rFigure 2. Botanical descriptionStrychnos henningsii is a small, erect, much-branched tree, m tall with aclean green-reddish stem. The bark is peeling, the crown compact with darkgreen, glossy foliage. The leaves are opposite, subsessile, ovate, 2. Medicinal UsesStrychnos henningsii is used in African medicines for treat ing various ailmentsincluding rheumatism, gastrointestinal complaints and snake bites Tits et al.
Boiled roots are used for diarrhoea treat ment. Pulverised bark is takenin doses of 10 g in a tablespoon of cold water for nausea. Bark is chewed fors to mach complaints, unspecified parts are used for tapeworm. Bark is used as a bitter appetizer in eastern Pondoland and has also been used as apurgative and colic remedy in unspecified parts of Africa Hutchings et al.
Data from ethnobotanical surveyStrychnos henningsii prefers to grow in dry lands. The plant parts reported to be used for the treat ment of diarrhoea are the leaves and the bark. This plantis also available in its fresh and dry form at the muthi market. The mode of preparation is crushing the leaves or bark, boiling and filtering it.
The oraladministration dosage is half a cup for children and one cup for adults. The rehave been no side effects reported from the plant Mayeza , pers. Chemical contentMost of the 22 alkaloids isolated from the stem, bark, twigs, seeds and leaveswere located in the stem bark and none of them were found in more than onepart of the plant.
Only a few of the stem bark alkaloids have been tested forbiological activity with one having convulsive, hypotensive and cardiacdepressant activity, while two others showed anticancer potential Massiote etal. Botanical descriptionSyzygium cordatum is an evergreen, water-loving tree, which grows to aheight of m.
This tree is of ten found near streams, on forest margins or inswampy spots. The leaves are elliptic to circular, bluish green on to p and apaler green below. Young leaves are reddish. The flowers are white to pinkishand fragrant. The fruit are oval berries, red to dark-purple when ripe Van Wykand Van Wyk, DistributionSyzygium cordatum occurs along stream banks from Kwazulu-Natafnorthwards to Mozambique.
The plant grows in forest margins, in bush oropen grass and sometimes in high countries Van Wyk and Van Wyk, ,Steenkamp et al. The fleshly fruit is slightly acidic in flavourand is eaten by people, monkeys, bush-babies and birds. The berries aresometimes used to make an alcoholic drink. The powdered bark is used as afish poison.
In central Africa the tree is known as a remedy for s to mach acheand diarrhoea. It is also used to treat respira to ry ailments, diabetes andtuberculosis Van Wyk and Gericke, , Musabayane et al. Syzygium corrJatum is used for the treat ment of infectiousdiseases in Venda and acts as an antifungal agent Steenkamp et al.
Data from ethnobotanical surveySyzygium corrJatum grows in drylands and forests. Fresh and dry material isalso available at the muthi market. Either the bark or theleaves are crushed, boiled and filtered to prepare a medicine to curediarrhoea. Medicine administration is either orally or as an enema. Oral dosesare half a cup for children and one cup for adults. Enema dosage depends onthe person. The re have been no side effects reported on the plant Nsele, pers.
Chemical contentThis family is known for various ethereal oils found in most or all of theunlignified tissues of the shoots. The se oils e. Scattered tanniferrous cells are of ten present. The plants nearlyalways contain proanthocyanidins and usually also ellagic acid and gallic acid. Conservation statusSyzygium cordatum is not endangered. Botanical descriptionThis handsome shrub belongs to the mint family and has a strong resinousaroma. Tetradenia riparia has bright green, velvety leaves, cm long, whichare slightly sticky to the to uch and have neatly scalloped margins.
The plantreaches about 5 meters in height and the flowers appear in the winter season. Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants , males in openpanicles that from a distance form a pale lilac-pink mist. Female flowers aresimilar but more compact Hutchings et al. The patient can take a single dose at bed timeand recover the next day. Cold water leaf decoctions, infusions and poundedleaves are taken for chronic coughs and sore throats.
Warm infusions of pounded leaves are used as an emetic. Strong decoctions prepared fromboiling leaves and stems should not be taken for more than four days, thedose should be limited to one spoon a day and should not be given to children. Leaves are also chewed for dengue fever. The Tswana people useleaves for fever and to calm patients and for gall sickness in cattle Hutchingset al. Data from ethnobotanical survey The plant has been reported to grow mostly in dry lands.
Tetradenia ripariahas been reported to treat diarrhoea, fever and flu, where leaves are used to treat diarrhoea. The mode of preparation is crushing the leaves or squeezing to obtain the juice and mixing with Uppia javanica leaves. The oral dosage isa teaspoonful for children, a spoonful for adults and can be taken every day. No side effects have been reported from the usage of the plant Mkhize ,pers. Chemical contentAlkaloids, triterpenoid friedelin and essential oil have been isolated fromTetradenia riparia plant Hutchings et al.
Conservation statusTetradenia riparia is not endangered. Botanical descriptionTrichiJia dregeana can reach a height of about 35 m with the tall main stemassuming a relatively straight and sometimes buttressed habit, up to 1. The grey bark is smooth in texture but of ten rough and segmentedaround the base of the main stem on older specimens. The compound leavescan reach lengths of 70 cm. The leaflets are entirely opposite to alternate,glossy and dark green in colour.
The creamy-white flowers are produced fromOc to ber to December. The fruits are round, velvet capsules, 3 cm in diameterthat split usually in to three valves. On splitting the capsules reveal six veryattractive seeds, these being black and covered largely by a bright red to scarlet aril, a striking and distinctive feature of the tree.
DistributionTrichiJia dregeana is a widespread species, stretching from Pondoland,Kwazulu-Natal in the south, through Swaziland, Mpumalanga and Limpopo. The plant is foundin areas of high rainfall in coastal and mountain evergreen forest Germishuizen and Meyer, , Eldeen et al. Medicinal Uses The decoctions are made from the pieces of the bark, about the length andbreadth of two fingers, pulverized and mixed in to two cups of hot water andare administered as enemas for s to mach disorders and intestinal complaints Hutchings et al.
The infusion of the bark or leaf is used for lumbago, rectal ulceration in children and dysentery. Oil from the seeds isrubbed in to incisions made over a broken limb, followed by the application of the roasted and powdered root and the leaves are worn in burial rituals. Enemas made from bark are administered for kidney ailments, as s to machand blood cleansers and also for intestinal worms Pooley, , Eldeen etal.
In zambia, powdered bark is applied rectallyfor an ailment known as Chiufa disease. The roots are used for fever and aspurgatives and bark for indigestion. Bark is also used for procuring abortionsand as a fish poison in Zimbabwe.
This plant is reported to be very poisonous. Enemas made from the plant are said to produce sweating and vomiting andhave been suspected of causing death Hutchings et al. Data from ethnobotanical surveyTrichilia dregeana has been reported to grow commonly in the forest. The bark which is used to treat diarrhoea is also available in the muthi markets.
The re is no specific time for the collection of the plant. The mode of preparation is crushing the bark, adding cold water and then filtering. The prepared medicine is administered orally, with doses of half a cup for childrenand a cupful for adults, three times a day.
No side effects have been reportedfrom the usage of the plant Mayeza , pers. Chemical content The compounds cycloartene-3, di of and limonoids have been isolatedfrom the plant Trichilia dregeana Mulholl and Taylor, , Eldeen et aI, Botanical DescriptionVemonia oligocephala is an herbaceous perennial with erect, floweringbranches developing from a woody roots to ck.
The leaves are elliptic in shape,usually not more than twice as long as they are broad, with a sharp point anda very short stalk. The bright violet flower heads are about 10 mm in diameterand are bome in large groups to wards the branch tips Pooley, Distribution The plant is widespread in the glassland regions of South Africa. Vemoniaoligocephala may be conf used with V. In the latter, however, the leavesare narrower and similar on both sides Misra and Jakupovic, , Hutchingset al. Otherailments treat ed include rheumatism, dysentery and diabetes Hutchings etal.
Data from ethnobotanical surveyVemonia oligocephala has been reported to treat diarrhoea and sores. To treat diarrhoea the medicine is prepared by crushing the leaves, adding waterand filtering it. It is orally administered.
The dosage depends on the person. No side effect has been reported on the plant Dindi , pers. Chemical contentA larger number of different sesquiterpenoid lae to nes have been isolated fromVemonia oligocephala, including germacranolides and glaucolides Misra andJakupovic, , Pooley, Conservation statusVemonia oligocephala is not endangered. The stems are downy throughout. Leaves arediscolorous and narrowly winged on both surfaces Pooley, DisbibutionVernonia tigna grows mostly in woodlands and wooden grassland of ten Indrainage lines.
The plant is originally from Central America but is now found inmany regions of southem Africa Pooley, Medicinal UsesVernonia tigna is used traditionally to treat colds, s to mach ache, hysteria,epilepsy and to ensure an easy birth Pooley, Infusions areadministered as enemas for intestinal ulceration Watt and Breyer Brandwijk, Leaves are used in medicine for madness, convulsions, uterine pain,chest pain and fevers in infants.
The plants are cultivated as snake repellentsin Zimbabwe Gelfand et al. Data from ethnobotanical surveyLeaves of Vernonia tigna which are sold in the muthi markets in dry form are used to treat diarrhoea. The mode of preparation is crushing the leaves,adding cold water and filtering. This medicine is orally administered withdoses of half a cup for children and one cup for adults, three times a day.
Noside effects have been reported on the plant Dindi , pers. Chemical contentAll parts of Vernonia ligna contain saponins, especially the roots. Othercomponents isolated from the plant include quercetin, oxalic, malic, succinicacid, glucose and two triterpenoid glycoside, chenopodoside A and B Wattand Brayer- Brandwijk, Conservation statusVemonia tigna is not endangered. Several plants are highly endangered andprone to extinction.
Most of the plant material used in traditional medicine isharvested in the wild by gatherers, who usually collect everything they thinkthey can sell without regard to how the plants will survive for the future. Morethan half of the plant material sold as traditional medicine consists of bulbs,rhizomes or bark. When underground parts are harvested, the whole plant isremoved, and to o of ten a tree is ring-barked, resulting in the death of thattree.
It has become increasingly difficult to collect enough material from thewild and several species can no longer be found because of destructiveharvesting. If a plant is threatened, there is limited s to ck material left, or if theseeds are difficult to germinate or the species cannot be propagated vianormal methods. Clonal propagation through tissue culturing might be analternative way of increasing plant production.
The plants can be replanted in nature to res to re the environment or can be used for commercial production of medicinal plants. The need for medicinal plants is not decreasing but is rather increasing. It is therefore necessary t of ind other ways to produce the amount of plant material that is needed. Inrecent years traditional healers have started to grow medicinal plants in theirown gardens.
The se solutions can help solve the problem, but are not enough Golding, , Heywood and lriondo, Mostly bark and leaves are used in thepreparation of remedies. The bark was harvested at anytime of the year andalso any time of the day. It has been reported that the debarking acceleratesthe death of many trees Grace et aI. It was very difficult to obtain the. It isthus necessary to encourage conservation among the communities andtraditional healers, an idea promoted by many researchers Kala, ,Shinwari and Gilani, , Heywood and lriondo, In the present studyAcridocarpus natalius, Alepidea amatymbica, Cyphostemma hypoleucum,Dichrostachys cinerea, Hypoxic hemerocal1idea and Sc1erocarya birrea werethreatened.
The re was limited s to ck material left and this needs to beconserved. If the seeds are difficult to germinate or species cannot bepropagated via normal methods, then clonal propagation in tissue culturemight be an altemative way of producing lots of plants.
The results of this study showedthat 35 different plant species are traditionally used in treat ment of diarrhoeaamong the community. Of the 35 plant species, 19 plant species have beenpreviously reported in literature to have the potential to treat diarrhoea.
The yare: Acacia karoo Pooley, ; Alepidea amatymbica Gelfand et al. This study records for thefirst time 16 plants which have not been documented before in the literatureas being used to treat diarrhoea, they are: Acacia robusta, Acanthospermumaustrole. Acridocarpus nataJius, Azima tetracantha, Cantharanthus roseus,. Some of the plants were reported to have synergism properties e. Synergism is evident where the combined action of the testsubstances exceeds the effects of the individual components ESCMID, In the present research, the main interest lies with the rich sources of medicinal plants that are found and used in the Ongoye area for the treat ment of diarrheoa.
In recent years theGovernment has realized the need to recognize and formalize traditionalhealing WHO, If traditional medicine is going to play a more formalrole in primary health care it is necessary that it becomes safer and that theremedies used are optimized for efficiency. Traditional healers and other people use whole plants or different plant parts leaves, bark, roots and stems for the preparation of remedies to treat diarrhoea, with leaves and bark being the most commonly used plant parts.
This study revealed that women Older people still rely on traditional treat ment whilst the younger people regard the indigenous knOWledge asprimitive, outdated and are thus not interested in it Zobolo and Mkabela, Formal medical facilities are available but most people still rely greatlyon indigenous medicinal plants. However informants reported that a person istaken to the doc to r after the indigenous intervention has failed.
This studyrevealed that most women had knowledge of Zulu names of plants and theiruses in traditional healthcare practice, especially in treat ing coughs, colds, flu,. The indigenous knowledge possessed bywomen is not adequately transferred to children for preservation. Moreresearch needs to be done to find ways of preserving indigenous knowledgeand to make the younger generation interested in acquiring this knowledge.
Perhaps it is not surprising to see these statistics in developing nations, butwhat may be remarkable is that infectious disease mortality rates are actuallyincreasing. Infectious diseases have become the leading causes of death andhave increased dramatically. This fact is alarming given that it was oncebelieved that we would eliminate infectious disease by the end of themillennium WHO, Intestinal infection is themost common cause of diarrhoea worldwide and is estimated to beresponsible for the death of 34 million individuals each year WHO, ,Agunu et al.
Diarrhoea continues to be the leading causes of mortalityand morbidity especially in children in developing countries including SouthAfrica Un et al. The emergence of multiple drug resistant strains of diarrhoeagenic pathogenshas made the treat ment of dysentery more difficult. In developing countries,the majority of people living in rural areas almost exclusively use traditionalmedicines in treat ing all sorts of diseases, including diarrhoea. A range of medicinal plants with anti-diarrhoeal properties have been widely used by thetraditional healers of different tribes in South Africa Un et al.
The effectiveness of many of these antidiarrhoeal traditional medicines howeverhas not been scientifically evaluated Mathabe et al. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine should therefore be studied for safety and efficacy El of f, , Famsworth, Diarrhoea can cause dehydration, which means the body lacksenough fluids to function properly. Dehydration is particularly dangerous inchildren and the elderly and it must be treat ed promptly to avoid serioushealth problems.
Diarrhoea can be ca used by the following: bacterialinfections, viral infections, food in to lerances, parasites, reaction to certainmedicine, intestinal disease and functional bowel disorders Madigan et al. Prolonged diarrhoea can be a sign of other problems. Most HIVpatients are infected by bacterial and fungal infections because their immunesystem is unable to protect them against these infections due to malnutrition.
Other contributing fac to rs are the increase in antibiotic resistance innosocomial and community acquired infections, for example, multi-drugresistant tuberculosis. The most dramatic increase of multi-drug resistanttuberculosis is occurring in the year age groups. The se negative healthtrends call for renewed interest on infectious diseases in medical and publichealth communities and renewed strategies on treat ment and prevention. Due to the over usage of antibiotics, many bacteria have developed resistanceagainst antibiotics.
It is thus important to investigate traditional medicines forantimicrobial activities Iwu, In the recent decades, antimicrobial resistance and sensitivity to bacteria havebeen considered as a major problem in Public Health Bradley, Foodand water can also be considered as an excellent way for introdUcingpathogenic microorganisms in to the general population and in to immunocompromised people and therefore it may transfer antibiotic resistantbacteria to the intestinal tract of consumers very efficiently.
Transfer of resistant genes can occur in the intestine between non pathogenic bacteriaand pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria. Because of the extended use of antibiotics, the number of bacteria that are resistant to antimicrobial agents israpidly increasing Bradley, Bacteria have evolved numerous defenses against antimicrobial agents anddrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. In recent years, incidences of multidrug resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria have been.
The se multi-drug resistantbacteria have also created huge clinical problems in cancer and immunecompromised patients such as HIV patients. Most important multi-drugresistant bacteria on the global scale include Gram-positive methicillinresistantStaphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci andGram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli Hopkins et al.
Emergence of antibiotic resistance raises question about the future of drugs inchemotherapy, as the transmission of such resistant plasmid to other bacteriawill help the fast distribution of resistance genes Hopkins et al.
Thus a search for newantimicrobials to combat infectious diseases ca used by multi-drug resistantbacteria including fast spreading producing enteric bacteria is urgentlyneeded. Due to poor hygienic conditions in developing countries in bothhospitals and communities, enteric bacterial infection ca used by resistantstrains of E. Screenings of traditional medicine against a problematic group of drugresistant bacteria are of great importance, as there is some reported broadspectrum activity of certain medicinal plants extracts against methicillinresistantStaphylococcus aureus and a variety of other bacteria.
Althoughsuch discussions of antibiotics resistance are still in an early phase, somescientists and physicians have raised the question of whether evaluation of new antibiotics should take in to account human microbial flora Casadevalland Pir of ski, The se arethe standard cultures.
The American type culture collection is the key sourcefor medical research and is the world premier biological culture reposi to ry. The ATCC gave medical and other biological scientists a reliable source of over 60, authenticated viable cultures.
Escherichia coli is catalase positive, oxidasenegative and indole positive and can grow at temperatures ranging from 37 to 46 QC at a minimum water activity of 0. This bacteria is fairly acid to lerantand can grow at pH values ranging from 4. Escherichia coli grow well on ordinary culture media Nutrient broth andNutrient agar at 37 QC for 24 hours.
In nutrient agar, colonies are large mm diameter in 18 hours , thick, colourless and moist. The colonies are easilyemulsifiable and seen on fresh isolation of smooth S form or on rough R form. On the MacConkey's agar, the colonies are rose pink due to lac to sefermentation and on Blood agar some strains show B haemolysis.
Howeversome strains are more heat resistant than other members of enterobacteriaceae and will survive at 60 QC for 15 minutes or at 55 QC for 60minutes Ballows et al. Pathogenesis The antigenic structure of E. However, phagocy to sis is successful in the presence of antibody to Kantigens alone, or both 0 and K antigens.
K antigen acts as the virulent fac to rby impending phagocy to sis and protects the bacilli from the killing action of antibody and complement. The re are several different serotypes of E. Furthermore, haemolytic strainshave been found to be more virulent than non-haemolytic ones in animalexperiments. It is likely that haemolytic strains obtain iron from theerythrocytes of the host.
Cy to to xic activity may also be important in someinfections Chakraborty, This infection of ten originates in the gut of the patient and the infection is thought to occur in an ascending manner. The re is evidence that the ability of E. Escherichia coli causes acute enteritis of young animals,including human infants, calves and lambs.
The acute enteritis is subjected onhuman subjects of all ages the tropics and includes traveler's diarrhoea Greenwood et al. Labora to ry diagnosisSpecimens of E. TreatmentEscherichia coli are resistant to benzylpenicillin but sensitive to ampicillin andcephalosporin and usually to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosidesand sulphonamides.
Many strains have acquired plasmid conferringresistance to one or more of these drugs. The strains that are resistant to ampicillin, strep to mycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines are particularlycommon. Extra intestinal E. Urinary characterization and cy to scopy require rigorous aseptictechniques to minimize the introduction of bacteria to the bladder. Bladderirrigation and systematic treat ment with antimicrobial agents have been used in catheter-associated infections.
In particular, medical emergency and. This bacterium is also a non-spore forming, facultativeanaerobe. The fermentation of glucose produces mainly lactic acid andferments manni to l. Staphylococcus aureus is catalate positive, coagulasepositive, and occurs in a golden yellow colony when grown on Nutrient agarand Blood agar for 24 hours at 37 QC.
It is part of the normal flora of humansfound in nasal passages, skin and mucous membranes. This pathogen mostlyaffects humans causing a wide range of suppurative infections, as well asfood poisoning and to xic shock syndrome Ballows et al. The ability of S. For example, if an appropriate inoculums isspread on the agar with a rich medium containing 7. The main distinctive diagnostic features of S.
PathogenesisStaphylococcal pathogenecity have been studied most extensively in thespecies of S. Certain strains of S. Hemolysins are regarded as principal to xins, erythrocytes and alpha Iysines are most important in pathogenicity. It causes infection most commonly at site of lowered host resistance, for example, damaged skin or mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus causes a variety of diseases including acne, boils,pimples, impetigo, osteomyelitis and arthritis.
Many of these diseases causethe production of pus, and are said to be suppurative or pus forming Madiganet al. Most habitats of S. Many healthy peopleare carriers and it does not cause disease. However, infants become infectedduring the first week of life from the mother or from another close humancontact Madigan et al. Diseases The coagulase- positive species S.
Staphylococcus aureuscauses considerable morbidity and mortality as a nosocomial pathogen of hospitalized patients. Methicillin-resistant S. Labora to ry diagnosisBlood tests that show unusually high concentrations of white blood cells cansuggest staphylococci infection, but diagnosis is based on labora to ry analysis of material removed from pus-filled sores and on analysis of normallyuninfected body fluids, such as blood and urine.
Also X-rays can be used to locate internal abscesses and estimate the severity of infection. Removingtissue with a needle and examining it under a microscope may show boneinvolvement Sriskandan and Cohen, Intravenous antibiotics are also used to treat staphylococci infections around the eyes or on the other part of the face Sriskandan and Cohen, In theorganism was renamed Bacillus subtilis. That organism was a chartermember of a large and diverse genus that is part of the Bacillaceae family.
The family's distinguishing feature is the production of endospores, which areround, oval or highly cylindrical refractile structures formed within bacterialcells. Bacteriophages that infect Bacillus are common in soil. The mostextensively studied Bacillus phages are those associated with B. BacillussubtiJis is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped and endospore-forming aerobicbacterium.
It is one of the most studied Gram-positive bacteria Madigan etal. PathogenesisBacillus subtilis produces the proteolytic enzyme subtilism which is anextracellular enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of proteins in to polypeptides and resembles trypsin in its action and has been shown to be apotent occupational allergen.
Bacillus subtilis is not regarded as a pathogenbut can contaminate food to cause food poisoning because its spores cansurvive the extreme heating that is of ten used to cook food and it may also beresponsible for causing ropiness in spoiled bread Nakano, Labora to ry diagnosisBacillus species are easily isolated and readily grown in the bacteriologylabora to ry.
The plates areexamined after 24 hours for typical Bacillus colonies and identified ascatalase-positive, Gram-positive, endospore forming rods. Some cultures. TreatmentBacillus species are rarely a pulmonary pathogen but may cause pneumoniain immunocompromised patients. The re were two cases where a patient withbronchictasis and no recognizable immunodeficiency had this organismisolated during two infective exacerbations, one from respira to ry secretionsand the other by blood culture.
Cipr of loxacin treat ment was effective on bothoccasions Madigan et al. This bacterium is also facultative anaerobic, rod shapedand found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin and intestine. It is clinicallythe most important member of the Enterobacteriaceae and is closely related to Klebsiella oxy to ca from which it is distinguished by being indole-negative.
Ithas the ability to grow on both melezi to se and 3-hydroxybutyrate. It can cause pneumonia in diabetics, alcoholics andimmunocompromised patients and may also produce lung abscesses Chakraborty, The main importance of K. Klebsiella pneumoniae candevelop in surgical wounds and in the urinary tract, and can causebacteraemic infections. Klebsiella can cause lobar pneumoniae resulting innecrotic destruction of alveolar spaces, cavity formation and production of thick blood-tinged viscuous sputum Greenwood et al.
The bacteria remain largely susceptible to aminoglycosides and cephalosporins. Strains of K. This is due to the production of a chromosomal Penicillinase which is inhibited by c1avulanic acid Cohenand Powderly, Fecal matter containsnumerous non pathogenic microorganisms.
It is necessary to employselective and differential media for the isolation of intestinal tract pathogens. Usually selective media contains some inhibiting compound that selectivelyinhibits mostly Gram-positive bacteria. Escherichia coli typically produce testpositive in indole, lysine decarboxylase and manni to l fermentation andproduce gas from glucose. An isolate from urine can be quickly identified asE.
The Salmonellae species are motile rodsthat characteristically ferment glucose and mannose without producing gasbut do not ferment lac to se or sucrose. Most Salmonellae produce H 2 S and are of ten pathogenic for humans oranimals when ingested. The Shigellae species are non-motile and usually donot ferment lac to se but do ferment other carbohydrates, producing acid butnot gas.
This bacterium does not produce H 2 S. Shigella species are closelyrelated to E. Many share common antigens with one another and withother enteric bacteria. Yersinia organisms are short, pleomorphic, Gramnegativerods that can inhibit bipolar staining and do not form spores and arecatalase-positive, oxidase-negative and micro-aerophilic or facultativeanaerobic.
Most have animals as their natural hosts, but can produce seriousdiseases in humans. The genus Yersinia includes Yersinia pestis, the cause. Vibrio and Campylobacter species are Gram-negative rod. Vibrios are widelydistributed in marine environments and Campylobacters in animals and birds.
The se bacteria are important causes of enteritis. Some strains of Vibriochorelae produce an entero to xin that causes cholera, a pr of use waterydiarrhoea that can rapidly lead to dehydration and death of the patient. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the common causes of enteritis in humans. Vibrios are among the most common bacteria in surface waters worldwide,are curved, Gram-negative, non-endospore forming, aerobic rods and aremotile by means of a f1agellum.
The epidemiology of cholera closely parallelsthe recognition of its transmission in water and the development of sanitarywater systems Jawetz et aI. The se plant powders were extracted with different solvents: methanol,ace to ne, cold and hot water for comparative analyses. Five grams of pOWdermaterial were mixed with 50 ml of each solvent. The mixtures were lef to vemight on a mechanical shaker at rpm for 24 hours at roomtemperature. The extracts were then filtered through a Whatman No 1 filterusing a Buchner funnel.
The extracts were further concentrated to dryness ina fume cupboard for the solvents to evaporate. The yields from the differentextracts were weighed, calculated Table 3. The samples were then s to red at 4 QC untilfurther use Mathabe et al. Extract yield per mglml ,! I I IIAcacia karoo 3. Acacia robusla 5.
IAloe arborescens i 1. Ii I,Acanthospermurn auslrale Chenopodium ambrosioids 4. Acacia robusta 4. Faurea macnaugh to n 1. Psidium guajava0. Different bacterial strains weremaintained on the agar plates and restreaked every two to three weeks to keep the cultures alive. Bacterial cultures were prepared by transferring onecolony in to a flask containing ml sterile Mueller-Hin to n MH broth andincubated to a 0,5 McFarland standard approximately 1x1 0 6 CFUlml.
The density of the turbidity was measured by using a spectropho to meter The rmospectromic Merck with 1 cm light path at a wavelength of nm. Anabsorbance of 0. The bacteria had to be streaked one at a time. Staphylococcusaureus were streaked on the plates with 7. Firstly theloop was flamed and the initial inoculum was streaked several times over anarea corresponding to area 1 Figure 3.
Futhermore the bacteria werestreaked several times in area 2 and the process was repeated for area 3 andarea 4. Mueller-Hin to n broth cultures wereprepared by transferring 1 colony to ml Mueller-Hin to n broth. The disks were allowed to dry before beingplaced on to the seeded to p layer of the agar plates. Dimethly sulfoxide DMSO was used as a negative control and prepared in the same manner asthe extracts Basch, Each plate contained 4 paper discs with differentplant extracts.
The plates were incubated at 37QC for 12 hours and the inhibition zones were measured in millimeters,antibacterial activity was expressed in terms of the average diameter of thezone of inhibition Vlietinck et al. SterileMueller-Hin to n MH agar was prepared. Bacterial strains of standardizedcultures were spread evenly using a sterile glassrod. Four wells 5 mmdiameter were made in each plate using sterile Pasteur pipettes, 30 Jil of methanol, ethanol, ace to ne and distilled water plant extracts mglml were then added in each well.
Diffusion of the extracts was done at room temperature for 1 hour. The plates were covered with lids and incubated at 37 QC for 24 hours. The plates were observed for the presence of clear zones of inhibition. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters and antibacterial activity wasexpressed in terms of the average diameter of the zone of inhibition. The absence of a zone of inhibition interpreted the absence of activity Mathabe etal, A micro-dilution technique using 96 well micro-plates, asdescribed by El of f was used to obtain MIC values of the crude plantextracts.
An equal volume of 25 pi distilled water, different plant extract andfresh bacterial cultures were added to the wells. Similar serial dilution wasperformed for neomycin 0. Micro-plates were then covered with lids andincubated at 37 QC overnight. P-iodonitrotetrazolium violet Sigma 25 fJl reagent 0. The lowest concentration of the extract thatinhibited the bacterial growth after incubation was taken as the MIC of a crudeextract.
Figure 3. IOlFigure 3. Sal -Salmonella Iyphii, Staphylococcus aureus strains - P Ssc 30 F. J09Figure 3. I J0Figure 3. I I IFigure 3. E 35E c 30c 25o:;I 20;e II , Herbal medicine has been shown to have genuine utility and ruralpopulations depend on it as primary health care. Over the years, the WorldHealth Organization advocated that countries should interact with traditionalmedicine with a view to identifying and exploiting aspects that provide safeand effective remedies for ailments of both microbial and non-microbial origins WHO, The results obtained from the ethnobotanical survey showedthat 35 plant species are being used by people at and around Ongoye forest The high diversity of medicinal plants used in the treat ment of diarrhoea inOngoye forest could be attributed to different interpretations of what may bethe cause of diarrhoea and the abundance of plants in a specific locality.
Some of the plants used in this study were reported to be used for diarrhoea treat ment by Venda people Ngobeli, and Zulu speaking traditionalhealers, for example, Psidium guajava having the antibacterial activity whenextracted using methanol and when extracted using distilled water Lin et al.
The disk-diffusion assay procedure entails inoculating the organism of interes to n an agar plate, placing the disk impregnated with the different plant extractson the inoculated surface and, after incubation, measuring the zone of inhibition. The size of the inhibition zone is influenced by complex fac to rs,such as rate of the diffusion of the plant extract through the agar, the size of the inoculum, the rate of the growth of the bacterium and the bacterium'ssusceptibility to the plant extracts.
For this experiment the amount of the plantextract impregnated was measured out in equal amounts in micro liters inorder to be aware of the actual concentration effective against particularbacteria strains. Successful isolation of botanical compounds from plant material is largelydependant on the type of solvent used in the extracting procedure.
The traditional healers use primary water as the solvent. In this study differentsolvents were used such as methanol, ace to ne, hot and cold distilled water. The plant materials extracted by cold and hot distilled water were of interest. The choice of solvent depends onwhat is intended with the extract. If the extraction is to screen plants forantimicrobial components, the effect of the extractant on subsequentseparation procedures is not important, but the extractant should not inhibitthe bioassay procedures.
The growth media seemed to play an important rolein the determination of the antibacterial activity. Mueller-Hin to n agar wasfound to be the best media to explicate the antibacterial activity. In Agar diffusion assays, the results were found to be good, similar to thoseobtained in the disk diffusion assay. Several of the plants tested in this studyhave been previously investigated, for instance, Tetradenia riparia have beentested for colds and flu Jager, ; Aleppidea amatymbica plant have beentested for the treat ment of infections Jager, ; Acacia karoo for the treat ment of pathogenic bacteria and fungi Pre to rius et aI.
Syzygium cordatum, Schotiabrachypetala Mathabe et aI. The results of Syzygiumcordatum and Schotia brachypetala antimicrobial activity are correlating to antimicrobial activities previously investigated. Results from literature showedthat Syzygium cordatum had zones of inhibition ranging from 13 mm to 25mm Mathabe et aI. Schotia brachypetala was previously investigated withzones of inhibition ranging from 13 mm to 23 mm Mathabe et aI.
The inhibition potential of all the plants tested using either the disk diffusion orthe agar diffusion methods ranged from 10 mm to a maximum of 35 mm. Staphylococcus aureus was the bacteria that was the most effectivelyinhibited by almost all the plant extracts, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae,. Almost all the plant extracts investigated gavepositive results; only a few gave negative results. In the disk diffusion assay,plant materials extracted with ace to ne with an inhibition pontential of morethan 25 mm in diameter were ihlaza bark Figure 3.
The plants extracted with cold distilled water with an inhibition potential of more than 25 mm in diameter were: Baccharoides adoensis plant Figure3. Inthe agar well diffusion assay, materials extracted with ace to ne that had thehighest potential to inhibit bacteria pathogens were: Ihlaza Figure 3.
The plants extracted using cold distilled water with aninhibition potential of more than 25 mm in diameter were: Acacia robusta Figure 3. The only plant extractedusing hot distilled water, having the inhibition potential of more 25 mm Indiameter was Lippiajavanica leaves Figure 3. This study contradicts results of other researchers who havereported that water extracts have low activities when compared to organicextracts Shale et al.
The results obtained from the plants extracted with distilled water were of interest in this study. The plant part with the highest inhibition potential formost of the bacterial pathogens was the leaves, followed by the stems, thebark and then the whole plant. The se results contradict those obtained byKelmanson et al.
Some of the plant parts had nominimum inhibition concentration at highest concentration tested found to beresistant, due to the fact that all the plant parts were tested for minimuminhibition concentration regardless of whether the plant showed anyantibacterial activity. The ace to ne plant extracts with a MIC of 0. The plant extracts listed above werenearly as effective as neomycin antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus,Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria strains.
Plant extracts containing secondary metabolites like saponins,phenolics in a physiologically inactive glycosidic form, may explain why some of the extracts did not produce marked inhibitions. The other reason could bethe slow diffusion of larger molecules in to the agar, thus blocking detention of the antimicrobial potential of the plant extract.
MIC values below 1mglml are considered noteworthy Van Vuuren, The plants listedabove can be recommended for further investigation for the development of potential drugs against microbial infections. According to Rios et al. The results obtained in this study appear to confirm theantibacterial potential of the plants investigated, for treat ment of diarrhoea thatmay be as a result of bacterial infections.
Inaddition, knowledge of the chemical constituents of plants would further bevaluable in discovering the actual value of folkloric remedies. Severalphy to chemical surveys have been published, including the random samplingapproach, which involved some plant accessions collected from all parts of the world.
The major chemical substances of interest in these surveys havebeen the alkaloids and steroidal sapogenins saponins.
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