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On December 28, , Limelight filed a petition asking the Supreme Court to review the decision of the Federal Circuit regarding the standard for induced infringement in cases where multiple parties may perform various steps of a patented claim. Akamai filed a cross petition asking the Court to also review the standard for direct infringement in those cases. On June 24, , the Supreme Court asked the Solicitor General to weigh in on the petition for certiorari. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

American information technology company. For low-level nuclear waste, see Low-level waste. Traded as. Retrieved May 31, Limelight Networks. Retrieved June 24, Retrieved July 14, Streaming Media Magazine. Retrieved October 2, Retrieved February 4, Seeking Alpha. Retrieved March 11, Archived from the original on September 13, January 30, March 7, Archived from the original on Retrieved CNET News.

June 26, CDN Advisor. July 27, Archived from the original on September 30, May 3, Archived from the original on May 7, Archived from the original on January 1, Retrieved August 30, December 23, Archived from the original on May 2, Retrieved May 1, Retrieved October 20, July 15, July 11, Archived from the original PDF on August 21, Retrieved February 21, March 1, Advised ITT Inc.

Advised Verizon Communications Inc. Advised ABC Technologies on the sale of a majority stake to certain investment funds managed by affiliates of Apollo Global Management. Advising Adient on the sale of Advising Colfax on its intention to separate into two publicly traded companies, MedTechCo, a specialty medical technology company, and ESAB, a premier global fabrication technology company. Thycotic to combine with Centrify to create cloud identity security leader. Acted as a Joint Bookrunner on the follow on offering and convertible notes offering for Shift4 Payments.

Advised Galway Insurance Holdings on its sale of a majority interest in the company to Harvest Partners. Branded Pastas. Advised LSC Communications on its comprehensive restructuring, including its sale of substantially all of its assets to Atlas Holdings. Advised the Scripps Family in connection with The E. Advised Morgan Stanley Infrastructure Partners on its Acted as an Active Bookrunner on the common stock offering and the mandatory convertible preferred stock offering for Danaher.

Advised Fundamental Income on its equity raise from a fund managed by Brookfield Asset Management to create a new net lease platform, Fundamental Income Properties. Advised Tapstone Energy on its comprehensive out-of-court financial restructuring and capital raise. Advised ConocoPhillips on the sale of its Denver-Julesburg Basin oil and gas assets to an undisclosed buyer. Advised Instart on the sale of certain customer contracts and intellectual property to Akamai Technologies, Inc.

Advising Xplornet Communications Inc. Advised Peter Hargreaves on the sale of approximately Advised L3Harris Technologies on the sale of its airport security and automation business to Leidos. Advised McDermott International, Inc. Advised the Conflicts Committee of CrossAmerica GP LLC on the elimination of incentive distribution rights and acquisition of a diversified portfolio of retail and wholesale assets. Advised Enleofen Bio Pte. Advised Danaher Corporation on the completion of its Split-off of Envista Holding Corporation, via an exchange offer of Envista common stock for Danaher common stock.

Advised Rackspace Hosting, Inc. Advised Before Brands, Inc. As part of the transaction, Nestle has acquired the exclusive licensing rights to Before Brands products outside the US, and also has an option to purchase all remaining equity in Before Brands in the future. Advised Vivint Smart Home, Inc. Advised the Coordinating Committee of Secured Lenders on the comprehensive financial restructuring of Dolphin Drilling.

Advised Alliance Resource Partners, L. Advised the Conflicts Committee of the Board of Directors of GasLog Partners on its elimination of incentive distribution rights in exchange for newly issued limited partner units. Advised Gamesys on its group re-organisation and the sale of its bingo games business and platform software to JPJ Group plc.

Advised TE Connectivity Ltd. Advised Frontier Communications Corporation on the sale of its operations and associated assets in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. Advised Novelion Therapeutics on its subsidiary, Aegerion Pharmaceuticals, execution of a prepackaged chapter 11 debt restructuring and subsequent merger with Amryt Pharma. Advised Advanced Energy Industries, Inc.

Advised Petrobras America Inc. Advised Flotek Industries, Inc. Advised ContourGlobal plc on its acquisition of Alpek S. Advised Catalina's first lien lenders in the company's comprehensive balance sheet restructuring. Advising Allscripts Healthcare Solutions, Inc. Advised Acrisure Holdings, Inc. Advised Essar Steel Algoma Inc. Advised Capital Product Partners L. Advised Nuance Communications, Inc.

Advised Energizer Holdings, Inc. Advised Oasis Petroleum Inc. Advised Jupiter Resources Inc. Advised Global Ship Lease, Inc. Advised Innate Pharma on its multi-term agreement with AstraZeneca, including its sale of a 9.

Advised Targa Resources Corp. Advised the creditor group of Hemisphere International Properties, Steinhoff International Holdings' property group, on the restructuring of Hemisphere's financial indebtedness. Advised Canada Colors and Chemicals on the sale of its chemicals distribution business to Brenntag.

Advised Spring Venture Group on its sale of a strategic investment in its business to Corsair Capital. Advised J. Advised Armstrong Asset Management on the sale of 5 operating solar power facilities in the Philippines to Citicore Power. Advised Enduro Resource Partners on its sale of predominately all assets and Chapter 11 elimination of debt. Advised Syncora Guarantee Inc. Advised Inversiones Alxar S. Advised LenderLive Services on its acquisition of reQuire Holdings and raising a new senior credit facility.

Advised Southeastern Grocers on its Restructuring Support Agreement regarding a voluntary comprehensive balance sheet restructuring. Advised Pattern Energy Group Inc. Advised NuStar Energy L. Advised the Conflicts Committee of 8point3 on 8point3's definitive agreement to be acquired by Capital Dynamics.

Advised Humana, Inc. Advised Trinity Industries, Inc. Advised Tekni-Plex Inc. Advised Atlantic Media, Inc. Advised TowerShare Inc.

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JavaScript JS is a lightweight interpreted programming language with first-class functions. A server is a program made to process requests and deliver data to clients. Machine learning is a way of modeling and interpreting data that allows a piece of software to respond intelligently. We are working to build community through open source technology. NB: members must have two-factor auth. GithubHelp home page GithubHelp Search. Forkers epowers tzuryby Cloudxtreme.

Binance DEX has very limited trading volume and available cryptocurrencies compared to the traditional Binance exchange, and operates using the Binance Chain BC blockchain. Binance Labs. Binance Labs is a social impact fund and initiative built to incubate, invest in, and facilitate the widespread adoption of various blockchain and cryptocurrency start-ups, projects, and entrepreneurs.

The mission of Binance Labs is to contribute to social impact causes around the globe and help grow the blockchain space by developing the knowledge base and skill sets of existing experts in the industry. It also intends to increase the number of developers and technologists involved in the blockchain and crypto industry to further the adoption of blockchain technology.

Binance Launchpad. Binance Launchpad is a token launch platform owned by the Binance crypto exchange. BSC is interoperable with other major blockchain networks and is characterized as being extremely fast and secure. Binary Code. Binary code is used to assign a pattern of binary digits, or bits, to each character or instructional format, such as a binary string of eight bits which can denote any of the possible values to represent a far-ranging variety of diverse items.

Binary codes are typically used for different ways of encoding data from one format to another, such as from character strings to bit strings. Bitcoin is a blockchain network with a native cryptocurrency bitcoin. It is the first blockchain and cryptocurrency, hence its dominant presence within the broader crypto ecosystem. Bitcoin was established in and pioneered Proof of Work, a technology for reaching consensus on a decentralized network.

Bitcoin BTC is a cryptocurrency that can be directly transmitted between users on the Bitcoin network. It is spelled with a lowercase B, as compared to the Bitcoin network, which is denoted with an uppercase B.

Bitcoin Cash BCH. Bitcoin Cash is a hard fork of the Bitcoin Network that serves as an electronic cash payment system. Bitcoin Cash's increased block size encourages use as a payment system rather than as a store of value. Bitcoin Core. Bitcoin Core is the main implementation of the software that allows users to interact with the Bitcoin blockchain network.

Bitcoin Core was initially created by Satoshi Nakamoto, but is not owned by any single entity, business, or organization. Nevertheless, it is updated, maintained, and reviewed by a global community of software engineers and computer scientists. Bitcoin dominance BTCD is a metric that measures the market cap of bitcoin BTC — the world's largest cryptocurrency — in relation to the total market cap of all other cryptocurrencies combined.

BTCD is often perceived to have a correlation to the performance of Ethereum and all other alternative cryptocurrencies, or altcoins. Generally, when BTCD decreases, the value of other cryptocurrencies increases in what is sometimes referred to as an "alt season.

Bitcoin Genesis Block. The first block mined on the Bitcoin blockchain, called the genesis block, was mined on January 3, by Satoshi Nakomoto, the creator of Bitcoin. It is hypothesized that Bitcoin was created to avoid the exploitation of the global banking system. A BIP can be submitted by anyone to be evaluated and reviewed.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal BIP 32 established the standard for hierarchical-deterministic HD wallets, a technical improvement over earlier wallets that only had random key pairs. BIP 32 allowed for the creation of a hierarchical tree-like wallet structure with more advanced cryptographic security mechanisms.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal BIP 38 enabled wallet holders to encrypt Bitcoin private keys with a password to offer an extra layer of protection. An encrypted private key requires that a user hold both the private key and the password in order to access wallet funds. This makes private key management a critically important step, where BIP 38 is commonly used for paper wallets and other analog devices for security purposes. Bitcoin Improvement Proposal BIP 39 allows for the generation of a human-readable word recovery phrase for hierarchical-deterministic HD wallets.

With the recovery phrase, users can regenerate an HD wallet that has become lost or damaged. Because they hold such access, BIP enabled recovery phrases should be kept secret and stored securely. BIP 44 allows two or more separate accounts on the same wallet to hold the same cryptocurrencies in different amounts. These separate accounts can be used for different purposes and coexist in a way similar to checking, business, and savings accounts at legacy banks.

Bitcoin Network. The Bitcoin network is a peer-to-peer, decentralized network that allows users to send units of value to each other without any intermediary or bank. Distinct versions of Bitcoin-NG have been implemented into the Waves and Aeternity blockchain protocols, but the Bitcoin-NG network has not released its own cryptocurrency. A Bitcoiner is holder of bitcoin and an active proponent of the Bitcoin network.

Bitcoiners typically believe that bitcoin is the most important and significant digital asset available. Bitcointalk is an internet message forum that was launched by pseudonymous Bitcoin creator Satoshi Nakamoto in to host discussions about Bitcoin, blockchain, and cryptocurrency. It became the meeting point for the embryonic blockchain industry, and was the site of the first bitcoin BTC purchase: 10, BTC in exchange for two pizzas.

The BitLicense is a business license for virtual currency activity that crypto enterprises must obtain before operating in the state of New York. Only 25 have been granted as of , while recipients include Circle, Coinbase, Robinhood, and Square. A bitstream is a stream of data bits. A bitstream may refer to the transmission — or storage — of this data. The term bitstream is commonly used to describe the data loaded on a field-programmable gate array FPGA.

BitTorrent Protocol. BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer P2P file-sharing protocol that enables users to freely share data and large files over the internet, such as movies, programs, and audio files. Black Hat Computer Hacker. A black hat hacker is a computer hacker who works in a malicious manner. Typically, black hat hackers steal data or commit fraud and perform other illegal activity online. Black hat hackers often work for themselves or with other groups of hackers together to accomplish their goals.

Black hat attackers are commonplace in the crypto industry and are generally focused on stealing crypto through various means such as hacking into user exchange accounts and wallets. Black hat hackers are the opposite of white hat hackers, who are normally hired to perform various tasks that prevent unethical behavior online.

Black Swan Event. A black swan event is a large-scale global event that cannot be predicted, occurs suddenly, and typically has a drastic negative impact on the global economy. When markets are affected by black swan events, it can take a significant amount of time for them to recover. Blake Decred. Blake is a specific algorithmic hashing function a mechanism to create and upload new blocks of data onto a blockchain in a secure manner used by the Decred blockchain.

Blake makes use of the hash iterative framework HAIFA as well as the local "wide-pipe" structure introduced by the LAKE hash function and other complex cryptographic hashing mechanisms that help the Decred protocol operate. On a blockchain, a block is the data record of all transaction information made during a specific timeframe on its network. Blocks are added sequentially to a network's chain of data, which in turn make up the public ledger known as blockchain. For example: A Bitcoin block contains information about the date, time, and number of transactions, as well as signature information regarding the origin and destination of the transfer.

Blocks must be confirmed by the network via a process of consensus before a chain can continue transacting and creating new blocks. Block Difficulty. Block difficulty refers to the complexity of computation required to mine new blocks in a Proof-of-Work PoW blockchain environment. Block difficulty is a configurable aspect of a blockchain protocol, and can be used as a mechanism to stabilize block production times in accommodating challenges like transaction speeds and network capacity.

Block Explorer. A block explorer is a software interface that enables users to access real-time blockchain information like transactions, blocks, addresses, nodes, and balances on a particular network. Operating as web browsers for blockchains, the many free-to-use and open source block explorers are essential in providing for global transparency and democratized access to blockchain networks.

Block Header. A block header is a mechanism that is used to identify individual blocks that have been created within a blockchain network, with each block having its own individualized header to help keep track of changes in the protocol. Blocks are layered in sequential order beginning with the genesis block and each block header contains three sets of block metadata and other individualized components. Block Height. Block height is a measurement of the number of blocks that came before a particular block in a blockchain network.

Every block possesses a unique block height value — essentially a number that marks its chronological order in the blockchain. The genesis block the very first block ever created on a blockchain network has a block height of zero, meaning that no blocks were created before it.

Block height is a critical measurement of the rate that new blocks are added to a blockchain and also acts as an identifier for each individual block in the network. Block Lattice Nano. Block Producer. On most Proof-of-Stake PoS blockchains, a block producer is an individual or group whose hardware is chosen to validate a block's transactions and initiate the next block.

The term originated within blockchain ecosystems that utilize Delegated Proof of Stake DPoS , where users elect block producers to validate and add blocks. Other names for block producers are 'delegates' or 'witnesses. Block Reward.

A block reward is the payment awarded to a blockchain network miner upon successfully validating a new block. Typically paid out in the native asset of its network at a fixed, but regressive rate, block rewards are often the only source of new currency creation on a network. They provide a key element of the incentive structure that keeps blockchain networks operating in a decentralized fashion.

In Proof-of-Work blockchains like Bitcoin, block validation and block rewards are the remit of miners. Block Size. Blockchain network protocols are made up of blocks of data that are processed in a perpetually updating chain-like structure — hence the term "blockchain.

Block Space. It also depends on the amount of block space that is already taken up. An absence of available block space can lead to increased fees and delayed transactions. Block Time. Block time refers to the amount of time it takes for a new block to be added to a blockchain. In theory, each blockchain network defines its own expected block time, which can vary from several seconds to minutes.

Bitcoin, for example, aims to have a block time of 10 minutes. In reality, block times can vary from their predetermined goals. If a network is producing blocks faster or slower than its expected block rate, the block difficulty can be adjusted in an effort to recalibrate the system. Block Trade. A block trade is a large purchase or sale of securities executed outside of an open marketplace.

Because the size of the transactions are quite large, block trading is typically done by institutions and hedge funds. The private nature of block trading makes them similar to over-the-counter OTC trading. A blockchain is a public ledger of transactions that is maintained and verified by a decentralized, peer-to-peer network of computers that adhere to a consensus mechanism to confirm data. Each computer in a blockchain network maintains its own copy of the shared record, making it nearly impossible for a single computer to alter any past transactions or for malicious actors to overwhelm the network.

Sufficiently decentralized blockchains do not rely on centralized authorities or intermediaries to transact globally, securely, verifiably, and quickly, making technology like cryptocurrency possible. It allows independent blockchain networks to connect and exchange data. Blockchain Trilemma.

The Blockchain Trilemma refers to the challenge in achieving a balance between scalability, decentralization, and security in a blockchain network. While scalability refers to the speed and volume of transactions, decentralization refers to the distribution of network nodes, and security refers to the integrity of the system from compromise.

The Blockchain Trilemma states that an equal prioritization of all three factors at once is impossible — so a trade-off must be made with one. It remains an ambition of blockchain technologists and entrepreneurs to solve the trilemma with greater effectiveness in the design of any network, update, or application. Blockweave Arweave. Created by the team behind Arweave, the blockweave is a blockchain-like data structure.

Each block in a blockchain is linked to the block that preceded it. In a blockweave, each block is linked to both the block that preceded it and a recall block — a block from the earlier history of the blockweave.

Bloomberg L. Bloomberg offers numerous products and services to its customers in a variety of industries including financial markets, politics, radio, news, television, tax, law, data and analytics, and more. Bloomberg was founded in by businessman and former New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg and three of his associates. The company has offices in more than countries worldwide and has about 19, employees globally.

Bloomberg Tradebook. Bloomberg Tradebook, which is a division of the globally known U. The system is directly affiliated with U. Initiated in , Bluesky is a project that hopes to develop a transparent and decentralized social media standard that any social media platform can use. While Bluesky is an independent organization, Bluesky was launched and funded by Twitter.

Bollinger Bands. Bollinger Bands are a technical analysis device created by trader John Bollinger in that have become one of the most popular tools used by traders today. Bollinger Bands use moving averages and standard deviation to create a range of price movements. On a trading chart, Bollinger Bands are visually represented by a centerline based on a moving average, with a band below and above the centerline based on standard deviation.

Bollinger Bands can help indicate if prices have moved outside of the range of historical deviation, and can be used to identify a number of market scenarios in real time. By bonding, users signify to the network that they are trusted participants that accepts the rules and regulations of the network. Bonding Curve. Bonding curve smart contracts represent a method for nurturing balanced supply and demand for a token.

A bonding curve is a mathematical concept used to explain the relationship between the price and supply of an asset. Bonding-curve smart contracts allow tokens to be sold to investors by calculating the token price in an asset such as BTC and issuing the asset after payment, while also allowing investors to retain the ability to buy the asset back and pay with bitcoin. In both cases, the smart contract determines the average price and bases the rate off the data. Through a bonding curve contract, when a user purchases an asset that is limited in quantity for example, BTC , each subsequent buyer must pay slightly more for the asset.

As time passes, the total available asset units decrease, thus increasing the price of each individual asset. A Boneh—Lynn—Shacham or BLS signature is a cryptographic signature mechanism that allows a user to verify that a signer is in fact legitimate.

BLS makes use of a bilinear pairing for verification, and its elliptic curve group properties help defend against specific attack types such as index calculus attacks, thus allowing for shorter signatures than Full Domain Hash FDH signatures with a comparable level of security.

Most startups face challenges related to funding, manpower, and resources — any and all of which can make it extremely hard to be profitable early on. It later became a metaphor for achieving success without outside assistance. Bor Nodes. Bor Nodes are used to facilitate block production on side chains while simultaneously maintaining connection to the Ethereum Virtual Machine EVM. They have the capability to eventually increase transactional throughput to 65, transactions per second TPS.

Bor Nodes are also periodically shuffled via committee selection using Heimdall Nodes a large group of Ethereum validator nodes in segments known as spans. Spans are specifically defined sets of blocks that have been chosen as a validator out of many potential validators.

Each validator in a specific span contains voting power. The strength of that power determines block producer selection, with the more powerful spans having a higher probability of being chosen. The term borderless in a blockchain context refers to the industry and its underlying blockchain protocols being designed to provide services to an international global user base.

This means that no matter an individual's location, the services provided by blockchain networks are always available. Borderless blockchain technology provides users the freedom, accessibility, security, and privacy to transact from any geographical location. Wildly popular in both the crypto community and wider online culture, many of the Bored Apes that initially sold for hundreds of USD now sell for millions. A botnet is a collection of internet-connected devices that have been infected by malware, enabling malicious actors to control the devices.

Infected devices are oftentimes controlled remotely and without the legitimate device owner's knowledge. Botnets are often composed of a variety of device types and used by cybercriminals to carry out a broad range of orchestrated online attacks such as credentials leaks, data theft, and DDoS attacks. A bounty is a reward or series of rewards advertised by a blockchain project to incentivize community participation to promote the project.

Bounties are marketing strategies that give community participants tokens in exchange for fulfilling specific predetermined tasks, like sharing the project on social media. Most commonly carried out during a start-up's Initial Coin Offering ICO , bounties can occur at any time of a project's development. Crypto bounties are used to reward social media promotion campaigns, content creation campaigns, translation campaigns, as well as bug auditing, among other tasks.

Brain Wallet. A brain wallet refers to a crypto private key or seed phrase that has been memorized by its owner. Brain wallets are not recommended as a secure crypto wallet option. Brave Browser. The Brave browser is an open-source, privacy-focused web browser developed by the same team that created the Basic Attention Token BAT.

It is the first web browser to implement the BAT system. The Brave browser, in combination with BAT, rewards users for viewing advertisements in a transparent relationship between advertiser, publisher, and user. BRD is a cryptocurrency wallet and financial services platform that aims to accelerate mainstream adoption of cryptocurrencies by simplifying the processes of purchase, conversion, and storage. Bread Rewards. The Bread Rewards program provides incentives to Bread platform users for engaging in network-beneficial activity like maintaining a wallet balance above a certain threshold, or posting on social media.

Bread Rewards was one of the first customer loyalty programs in the cryptocurrency wallet space. A breakdown is characterized by heavy volume, a rapid decline, and severe magnitude. Breakdowns can be identified by technical indicators like charting patterns, trendlines, and moving averages.

In technical analysis TA , a breakout is a technical pattern that forms on a chart when an asset moves above a resistance level or below a support level. The price of an asset will often continue trending in the direction of the breakout.

When a breakout is accompanied by high trading volume, it signifies a higher chance the asset will continue trending in the same direction, as opposed to a breakout with low trading volume. A price breakout sometimes occurs as a result of a channel, range, or pattern such as a flag, wedge, triangle, or head and shoulders. A bridge allows independent blockchains to communicate with each other. On the Polkadot network, a bridge is used to attach parachains and the main Relay Chain to other external blockchain networks such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.

Polkadot data transmits from its main Relay Chain to parachains, attached to which collator nodes assemble all the transactions. Collator nodes communicate via a bridge to connect to external blockchain networks. Broadcaster Livepeer. On the Livepeer network, Broadcasters are nodes that send video streams to the network for transcoding.

Brokerage Account. A brokerage account is a financial service created and managed by a licensed brokerage firm on behalf of an investor to interact with assets and markets. Account holders can either make trades themselves, or the firm can make them on behalf of account holders. In all cases, the assets purchased through the brokerage account belong to the account holder. Brute Force Attack. In a brute force attack, an attacker attempts to gain access to an account by systematically trying all possible combinations of passwords and passphrases that may apply to the account, with the goal of eventually guessing the correct credentials.

While brute force attacks can be computationally intensive, time-consuming, and difficult to pull off, they can correctly guess a weak password within a few seconds. A strong password can deter most brute force attacks. It is usually possible to identify a bubble only after it has burst, and the price recedes.

A speculative bubble is characterized by both the rise and fall occurring within a very short period. Bug Bounty. A bug bounty, sometimes called a vulnerability rewards program VRP , is an initiative that blockchain or software development enterprises may offer to external developers to incentivize the proper reporting of potential problems in the computer code that makes up their network protocol or platform.

Bug bounties typically offer financial rewards to successful auditors of computer code. BUIDL is a call to arms to members of the blockchain and crypto community to help improve widespread adoption of the technology by contributing to the long-term construction of blockchain infrastructure. BUIDLing can be in the form of protocol or application development, writing blockchain related content, sharing blockchain info on social media, using smart contracts, trading on exchanges, making use of wallets, playing blockchain games, or any activity that contributes to the expansion of blockchain over the long term.

Bull Flag Technical Formation. A bull flag is a technical charting pattern shaped like a flag that often signals further bullish momentum and an increase in price. With a bull flag, the flagpole is formed during a significant rise in price where buyers significantly outperform sellers, while the flag itself is formed during a consolidation period that usually signals a continued price increase.

Bull flags, like all technical formations, can sometimes be negated and fail to produce the results they may have originally indicated. Bull Market. A bull market refers to an upward trend in prices for an extended period of time. As of , bitcoin has undergone three bull markets. The opposite of a bull market is a bear market.

Bull Run. A bull run is a specific time period in a financial market cycle during which asset prices can experience a significant upward trend. A bull run is similar to a bull market, while the opposite of a bull market is a bear market, during which assets can experience a substantial drop in price. Bull Trap. A bull trap is a market signal that signifies an initial recovery in the price of a declining asset, followed by a further decline.

Bull traps are sometimes carried out by investors with substantial amounts of capital who open a short position prior to selling a large amount of the asset so it drops in price on purpose, thus giving the investors a substantial profit as a result.

This scenario could be an example of a type of market manipulation. The term "bullish" can be used to describe how positive or optimistic a person feels about a particular asset. Someone who is bullish on bitcoin believes the price of bitcoin will increase. A person who is bullish on bitcoin may also be referred to as a bitcoin "bull. Usually intended as a counter-inflationary mechanism, burning tokens decreases the overall total token supply, theoretically increasing the value of the underlying asset.

Binance U. BUSD is pegged at a ratio to the U. However, BUSD is also interoperable with other blockchains such as Ethereum, and can be used for various decentralized finance DeFi applications and to transfer value between blockchains. Business as a Service BaaS. Business-as-a-Service BaaS is defined as the third-party creation and management of cloud-based network infrastructure for enterprises that want to create and run customized cloud-based business applications.

Business-as-a-Service in the blockchain space is sometimes called Blockchain-as-a-Service BaaS , meaning that the customized software and computing structure of the business is specifically designed for enterprises building numerous types of blockchain applications. Blockchain-as-a-Service functions similar to a web host running the back-end operations for a blockchain-based application or platform.

Within a programming context, the business logic layer BLL determines how data a software program interacts with can be created, altered, and stored. Business-to-Business B2B. Business-to-business B2B is a business model which is employed by enterprises that do business between one another, often in the form of value or information exchange.

The B2B model can be leveraged in a traditional brick and mortar context, but is often used on the internet for the purposes of e-commerce or e-business. B2B, whether carried out online or traditionally, is one of four main business models alongside business-to-consumer B2C , consumer-to-business C2B , and consumer-to-consumer C2C. Business-to-Consumer B2C. Business-to-consumer B2C is a business model utilized by enterprises to provide products and services directly to their customers.

The B2C model can be leveraged in a traditional brick and mortar context, but is often used on the internet for the purposes of e-commerce or e-business. B2C, whether carried out online or traditionally, is one of four main business models alongside business-to-business B2B , consumer-to-business C2B , and consumer-to-consumer C2C.

Buy side and sell side refers to the buyers and sellers in a market who are connected by an order management system OMS. The buy side is typically fund managers whose job is to pick high-alpha securities for their portfolios. The sell side is typically trading floors at investment banks. Rapid and concurrent trades between the buy side and sell side are facilitated by advanced OMS technology protocols.

Buy the Dip. In this sense, a dip is seen as a short-lived flash sale or discounted price that should be taken advantage of. Buying the dip is often regarded as a strong strategy for investors who are holding an asset over the long term with the hopes of reducing their average entry price through a dollar cost averaging DCA investment strategy. Buy Wall. A buy wall occurs when a large limit order is placed at a specific price level to buy a large amount of an asset.

When a buy wall is placed, the result is often a strongly maintained price equilibrium that doesn't drop below the targeted price. Buy walls, like sell walls, can be used to manipulate the price of markets. Buy walls can be implemented to prop up the price of an asset to make it appear more healthier it actually is, with the purpose often focused on manipulating the behavior of retail investors.

Byron Phase Cardano. After two years of development, the Cardano blockchain mainnet went live in September and allowed users to buy and sell its native ADA coin. Byzantine Fault Tolerance refers to a blockchain network's ability to reach consensus and continue operating even if some of the nodes in the network fail to respond or respond with incorrect information.

A network that is Byzantine Fault Tolerant solves the Byzantine Generals Problem, a situation in which all parties must agree but one or more parties are unreliable. Most actively used consensus mechanisms are Byzantine Fault Tolerant. BFT-DPoS is a highly-performant consensus mechanism that makes use of data passing between parties without an intermediary. Byzantine Generals' Problem. The Byzantine Generals' Problem is a term used in computing to describe a situation in which all parties or components within a system must agree on a single consensus-based strategy in order to avoid complete network failure.

Failure can be caused when one of the nodes or other architectural components within the network are unreliable. Most actively used blockchain consensus mechanisms are Byzantine Fault Tolerant. Call Option. A call option contract gives an investor the right, but not the obligation, to purchase an underlying security at a specified price within a defined period of time. When the option expires, the investor can choose to buy the underlying security or let the options contract become void.

Call options are traded on exchanges as a derivative, and can be used for speculation, income, or trading strategies like hedging. Call Provision. A call provision on a bond or other fixed-income investment product is an option allowing the issuer to repurchase and retire the bond. The call may be triggered by a set price, or may be limited by a specific time period. A bond with a call provision pays a higher interest rate than a noncallable bond.

Candlesticks are part of a charting methodology employed by stock and cryptocurrency investors that shows historical and real-time prices of a specific asset. Candlesticks are designed to display the open, high, low, and closing OHLC prices of an asset for specific time periods usually by the minute, hour, day, week, and month.

Typically, green candlesticks denote a bullish increase in price, while red candlesticks signify a bearish decrease in price. Candlesticks are generally thought of as the most well known technical indicator that investors use. Candlestick Body. A candlestick body, or real body, is the widest portion of a Japanese candlestick that covers the area between the opening price and the closing price during a specific time frame, usually the minute, hour, day, week, month, or year.

Generally, if the candlestick is red, the closing price is below the opening price, while a green candlestick signifies that the closing price is above the opening price. The candlestick also has a thin line-like portion called the candlestick wick which appears above or below the body , that, like the body, is used to gauge price action and market sentiment. Candlestick Wick. A candlestick wick, or shadow, is the line on a Japanese candlestick that is used to indicate where the price of an asset has changed compared to its opening and closing prices.

Wicks indicate the highest and lowest prices that an asset has traded over a specific time frame, usually by the minute, hour, day, week, month, or year. The candlestick also has a wide portion called the candlestick body that, like the wick, is used to gauge price action and market sentiment, along with several technical and fundamental indicators. A software canister is comparable to a container used by other blockchain systems, because both are deployed as a software unit that is made up of compiled code and a mechanism for an application or service.

Containerization allows applications to be separated from the main blockchain environment, enabling simple and reliable deployment. However, a canister is different from a container because it also stores data about the current software state with a record of numerous previous events and user interactions.

As it relates to theoretical computer science, CAP theorem is a theory that was developed by computer scientist Eric Brewer that states that it is impossible for a distributed data network to at the same time provide more than 2 out of 3 guarantees: consistency, availability, and partition tolerance which stands for the acronym CAP. The theory was used as the basis for the Blockchain Trilemma theory which states that it is impossible to build and operate a blockchain protocol that is: decentralized, scalable, and secure.

Capitulation refers to a drastic market downturn characterized by a period of strong selling activity, whereby investors might sell their holdings at an unprecedented rate to avoid further financial losses. Capitulation is sometimes referred to as panic selling. Shorter capitulations may be followed by an uptrend reversal in value. Cardano ADA. Cardano is a Proof-of-Stake blockchain platform with smart contract functionality.

In particular, Cardano is noted for its focus on academic research, high transactions-per-second TPS throughput, and an energy-efficient consensus mechanism called Ouroboros. ADA, the native token of the Cardano network, is used to facilitate transactions and smart contract execution. Casascius Coins. Casascius Coins were physical bitcoin products sold until Made of metal, Casascius Coins had a tamper-resistant sticker concealing the private key and could be physically exchanged.

The coins came preloaded with fixed amounts of 1, 10, 25, , and bitcoins. CashFusion is a privacy tool for concealing Bitcoin Cash transactions. It is an improvement on the CashShuffle tool with enhanced privacy characteristics. Tor is also built into the CashFusion protocol to mask user IP addresses. CashShuffle is a privacy tool for concealing Bitcoin Cash transactions.

The process involves many users combining their funds into one large transaction, which is then sent back to the users in a way that hides their transaction paths. Casper Ethereum. Casper is the name of the new Ethereum consensus mechanism that will transform the existing Ethereum network — based on a Proof of Work PoW consensus mechanism, and known as Ethereum 1.

As of March , Casper has been co-developed with two main implementations for the Ethereum 2. Casper CBC was initially developed by Vlad Zamfir, a well-known software engineer and technologist who helped create Ethereum. CasperLabs is the blockchain software development company responsible for the creation and development of the Casper Network blockchain protocol. The Casper Network is built to be decentralized, future-proof, fully upgradeable, scalable, and designed with an emphasis on enterprise blockchain use.

Caspian CSP. Caspian CSP is a cryptocurrency trading platform designed for institutional traders. The platform provides users with an order and execution management system OEMS , position management system PMS , risk management system RMS , and tools for compliance and reporting requirements. Catalysts The Sandbox. Cboe Options Exchange.

Established in , Cboe offers derivative options related to several products, including equities, indexes, and funds. Celo is a mobile-first blockchain payments platform that makes cryptocurrency and financial services accessible to anyone with a smartphone. Launched by Silicon Valley startup cLabs, Celo is a fork of the Ethereum blockchain that is specialized to create and distribute a suite of stablecoins backed by fiat currencies, particular localities, and even natural resources.

Celo is governed by the holders of its native asset, CELO. Censorship Resistance. A sufficiently decentralized blockchain network transparently distributes data across a wide range of computers, which makes censorship extremely difficult. The transparent and decentralized nature of blockchains makes them highly resistant to external modifications. Central Bank. A central bank controls the monetary policy and currency of a nation-state. Central banks function as the bank of governments, and have the power to set interest rates and the money supply.

The Federal Reserve is the central bank of the United States. A central bank digital currency CBDC is a digital version of a country's fiat currency. CBDCs can increase the speed and transaction costs of fiat and cross-border settlement, potentially increasing financial inclusion for many. A central limit order book CLOB is a trading model used by asset trading exchanges. CLOBs are generally considered highly transparent, real-time anonymous allowing customers to trade with each other anonymously , extremely fast, and cheaper to use than other alternatives.

A Central Processing Unit CPU , or main processor, is the most powerful component of the electronic circuitry inside a computerized system. The CPU processes essential logic, arithmetic, and input and output operations specified by the instructions of the operating system of a computer. A CPU is an electronic circuit that can process or run multiple tasks or programs on a device.

Although being flexible and multi-purpose in nature, CPUs are generally not as efficient or cost-effective at mining cryptocurrency as purpose-built crypto miners. However, there are a variety of CPUs with differing price points and mining performance characteristics. Centralization refers to the consolidation of control, authority, and access by a person or group. In a blockchain context, centralization refers to the level of privilege and distribution of nodes verifying and managing the network.

Centralized decentralized finance CeDeFi is a blockchain-based system that is a hybrid between decentralized finance DeFi and centralized finance CeFi meant to leverage the best of both models. CeDeFi was also designed to offer numerous types of financial products and services that are not normally available through traditional DeFi.

CeDeFi blockchain protocols also help large enterprises better adhere to strict regulatory and compliance issues, allowing them to operate more smoothly. Centralized Exchange CEX. A centralized exchange CEX is a centrally controlled platform used to trade crypto assets. Centralized exchanges act as intermediaries between buyers and sellers.

These platforms are custodians of user data and funds. Centralized Finance CeFi. Centralized Finance CeFi is often thought of as a bridge between traditional finance TradFi and modern financial applications like blockchain and financial technology FinTech. CeFi enterprises generally operate using a centralized governing body that controls users' funds.

Although numerous interpretations of what CeFi encompasses exist, centralized exchanges CEXs , cryptocurrency asset custodians, and numerous FinTech applications like payment service providers are typically considered to be CeFi.

CeFi service providers are often characterized as easy-to-use and heavily regulated with low fees. However, because they are centralized, they are potentially susceptible to a single points of failure. Centralization refers to the concentration of power in the hands of too few. Centralization can lead businesses to a lack of transparency, efficiency, and balance and sometimes even result in the limited effectiveness of products and services.

Centralized blockchains may distribute profits to a select few rather than allowing all potential users of the system to participate. A centralized blockchain structure may also stifle equitable governance and decision-making processes and promotes censorship and control of data, which are not favourable to the value a system should provide.

Cerber Ransomware. Cerber ransomware became notorious for its ransomware-as-a-service model, which enables malware creators to sell their services to other cybercriminals in return for a cut of the profit earned via the attacks. Certificate Authority CA. A certificate authority CA is a third-party entity that issues certificates and manages the public keys required to cryptographically verify digital certificates online.

CAs play a critical role in securing much of the information that is exchanged on the internet, and they can be government-based or large multinational corporations. Digital certificates are often used to encrypt digital transactions and identity data to enable the secure exchange of information online.

Certificate of Deposit CD. A Certificate of Deposit CD is a type of savings account that holds a fixed amount of money for a fixed period of time in exchange for interest paid by the issuing bank. Common time periods for a CD are six months, one year, or five years. The mechanism is used to render old blocks within the system unnecessary, and enables the Internet Computer Protocol to operate at web-speed by finalizing transactions needed to update smart contract states within 1 to 2 seconds.

Chain key technology is also responsible for the communication of different components within the Internet Computer such as subnets, canisters, and the Network Nervous System NNS and the network's consensus mechanism. Chain Migration Blockchain Development. A chain migration occurrs when a blockchain project decides to operate on a different blockchain protocol. At this time, most decentralized finance DeFi projects are built on the Ethereum blockchain.

An example of a chain migration would be if the DeFi protocol Aave left the Ethereum blockchain and migrated its protocol — complete with all its product and service offerings — over to the Binance Smart Chain. Chain migrations occur for various reasons including, for example, changes in company direction, or desired changes in tokenization standards e.

Chain Reorganization. Chain reorganizations occur when blockchain network nodes broadcast two different blocks simultaneously. Since both cannot be accepted to become a finalized block, then two versions of the blockchain proceed in parallel until one eventually becomes longer than the other, and is chosen to become the sole path forward.

In order to ensure that network nodes all agree on the same version of the blockchain, chain reorganization takes place. If a node receives blocks that are part of a new longest chain, then it will essentially abandon the blocks in its old chain in favor of the new. Chainlink LINK. Chainlink is a decentralized oracle network that provides real-world data to smart contracts on the blockchain. LINK is the digital asset token used to pay for services on the network.

Change Address. A crypto transaction has an input address, output address, and change output, which represents the information transacted. The change address is where the change output is sent. Changpeng Zhao CZ. After graduating, CZ began working for the Tokyo Stock Exchange as a software developer and later worked for Bloomberg Tradebook in a similar role.

Channel Technical Formation. A channel is a charting pattern in technical analysis TA that is classified as an area where an asset is trading between two price trendlines an upper and lower trendline. There are several types of channels that can form, including ascending channels and descending channels. Channels can be used by traders, in combination with several other TA metrics, to initiate opportunities to buy and sell an asset at certain price levels.

Charles Hoskinson. Charles Hoskinson is the founder of the Cardano blockchain project, as well as one of the former founders of Ethereum, among other blockchain-focused businesses. Hoskinson left Ethereum in mid and began developing Cardano during , which was initially released when the network officially went live in The Chicago-based exchange was founded in and is now one of the biggest global derivatives markets in the world. In , the CME launched the trade of bitcoin futures contracts.

Chunk Near Protocol. Ciphertext refers to encrypted text that is unreadable without authorized access. Plaintext is transformed into ciphertext via an encryption algorithm. Only those who are authorized to access the data should be able to decrypt the ciphertext back into readable plaintext. Circular Economy. A circular economy is an economic system that values a healthy economic structure with enhanced environmental sustainability.

Circular economies prioritize the elimination of waste and the use of resources in a responsible manner — employing reuse, repair, recycling, repair, reimbursement, and sharing to create a closed-loop system that minimizes the creation of waste, pollution, and carbon emissions. The circular economy is designed to keep products, infrastructure, and equipment in use longer, to improve the productivity of all-import natural resources.

The circular economic approach stands in contrast to a linear economy that employs an unsustainable "take, make, dispose" model of production. Circulating Supply. The circulating supply is the total number of tokens of a specific cryptocurrency that are available in the market. The circulating supply includes all tokens locked in decentralized applications and held on crypto exchanges or in user wallets.

The circulation supply is different from the total supply, which is the total amount of tokens that will ever be created. As it relates to the banking and finance industry, clearing is the process of settling a financial trade or purchase of an asset by correctly and efficiently transferring funds to the seller, and in return, by transferring the corresponding asset to the buyer.

Typically, a specialized organization acts as an intermediary in the clearing process to both buyer and seller to ensure procedure and finalization. The interrelated processes of clearing and settlement are what make up the post-trade process. Cleos simplifies the development process for software engineers by giving them access to specific developer tools to interact with EOS blockchains. The CLI is used for reading data from the blockchain, sending new transactions, and to test and deploy smart contracts.

Client-Server Model. Client-server models in computing have been implemented since the beginning of the internet. The close, or closing price, is one of four main data points used for day trading on the stock market. The other three are called low, high, and open — and all four are collectively known as OHLC.

Traditionally, stock market trading was carried out during regular market hours, often only between 9am and 4pm local time, with markets closed on weekends. Closed Loop Payment Network. Closed loop payment networks are those in which a consumer loads money into an account that can only be used with specific merchants, whereas open loop payment networks allow consumers to use money stored in a centralized wallet for multiple merchants. Closed loop networks cut out several middlemen in a payment's transaction, reducing transaction fees and speeding up settlement.

Flexa utilizes a closed loop payment network architecture. Cloud Computing. Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of specialized computer network resources — specifically of data storage and computing power that is not managed by a single entity. The term cloud computing generally describes a data center that is readily available to users around the world via the internet. Large, centralized cloud computing enterprises are predominantly available today, and often have their network infrastructure distributed over multiple locations.

There are several different types of cloud computing models, including enterprise clouds, public clouds, hybrid clouds, and more. More recently, through blockchain technology, decentralized cloud computing infrastructure has become more readily available.

Cloud Mining. Cloud mining is the process of mining cryptocurrency through the use of a third-party provider by purchasing a cloud mining contract. You typically purchase a fixed amount of cloud computing power measured in hashes per second for a set period of time and receive the associated mining rewards associated with your contract.

You can also lease the mining rigs themselves — usually application specific integrated circuit ASIC miners — which can give you more flexibility but generally includes setup and maintenance fees. Code Repository. Typically used for collaborating with other programmers, a code repo also archives older software versions and gives users the ability to revert software changes.

Code repos can either be public or private. Coin Mixer. A coin mixer is a software or service that mixes the cryptocurrencies of many different users to preserve privacy and anonymity despite the public ledger of blockchain networks. Coin mixing increases the challenge of tracking transactions, and has been found evident in dark web activities and money laundering in addition to its legal uses. Coin Swap or Token Swap.

A coin swap or token swap is the process of a platform replacing an existing token with a significantly updated token. The new token is designed to give the protocol significant increased utility needed to further expand the project and distributed to wallet holders, while the pre-existing token is voided. Coinbase Cryptocurrency Exchange. Coinbase is one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in the world.

Based in the U. Coinbase Transaction Generation Transaction. A generation transaction, or a coinbase transaction as it is commonly known, is the first transaction data contained in a block on the Bitcoin blockchain.

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Content delivery network EdgeCast Networks Inc. put its IPO plans on hold and chose instead to go with Verizon Communications Inc. EdgeCast is a content delivery network (CDN) that helps companies accelerate and deliver static and dynamic content to end users around the world. (LLNW) announced Monday that it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Yahoo's Edgecast, Inc., a provider of edge security, content.